• P. C. Agrawal

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in the hard x-ray emission from cygnus x-1

      B. Paul P. C. Agrawal A. R. Rao

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      The observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-l were made in the energy band of 20–100keV with a balloon-borne Xenon-filled multiwire proportional counter telescope on 5th April 1992. Timing analysis of the data revealed the presence of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPO) in the hard X-ray emission from the source. The QPO feature in the power density spectrum is broad with a peak at a frequency of 0.06 Hz. This result is compared with similar reports of QPOs in Cyg X-l in soft and hard X-rays. Short time scale random intensity variations in the X-ray light curve are described with a shot noise model.

    • X-ray observation of XTE J2012+381 during the 1998 outburst

      S. Naik P. C. Agrawal B. Paul A. R. Rao S. Seetha K. Kasturirangan

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      The outburst of X-ray transient source XTE J2012+381 was detected by the RXTE All-Sky Monitor on 1998 May 24th. Following the outburst, X-ray observations of the source were made in the 2–18 keV energy band with the Pointed Proportional Counters of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) on-board the Indian satellite IRS-P3 during 1998 June 2nd–10th. The X-ray flux of the source in the main outburst decreased exponentially during the period of observation. No large amplitude short-term variability in the intensity is detected from the source. The power density spectrum obtained from the timing analysis of the data shows no indication of any quasi-periodic oscillations in 0.002–0.5 Hz band. The hardness ratio i.e. the ratio of counts in 6–18 keV to 2–6 keV band, indicates that the X-ray spectrum is soft with spectral index >2. From the similarities of the X-ray properties with those of other black hole transients, we conclude that the X-ray transient XTE J2012+381 is likely to be a black hole.

    • AstroSat: From Inception to Realization and Launch

      P. C. Agrawal

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      The origin of the idea of AstroSat multi wavelength satellite mission and how it evolved over the next 15 years from a concept to the successful development of instruments for giving concrete shape to this mission, is recounted in this article. AstroSat is the outcome of intense deliberations in the Indian astronomy community leading to a consensus for a multi wavelength Observatory having broad spectral coverage over five decades in energy covering near-UV, far-UV, soft X-ray and hard X-ray bands. The multi wavelength observation capability of AstroSat with a suite of 4 co-aligned instruments and an X-ray sky monitor on a single satellite platform, imparts a unique character to this mission. AstroSat owes its realization to the collaborative efforts of the various ISRO centres, several Indian institutions, and a few institutions abroad which developed the 5 instruments and various sub systems of the satellite. AstroSat was launched on September 28, 2015 from India in a near equatorial 650 km circular orbit. The instruments are by and large working as planned and in the past 14 months more than 200 X-ray and UV sources have been studied with it. The important characteristics of AstroSat satellite and scientific instruments will be highlighted.

    • Large Area X-Ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) Instrument on AstroSat and Some Preliminary Results from its Performance in the Orbit

      P. C. Agrawal J. S. Yadav H. M. Antia Dhiraj Dedhia P. Shah Jai Verdhan Chauhan R. K. Manchanda V. R. Chitnis V. M. Gujar Tilak Katoch V. N. Kurhade P. Madhwani T. K. Manojkumar V. A. Nikam A. S. Pandya J. V. Parmar D. M. Pawar Jayashree Roy B. Paul Mayukh Pahari Ranjeev Misra M. H. Ravichandran K. Anilkumar C. C. Joseph K. H. Navalgund R. Pandiyan K. S. Sarma K. Subbarao

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      Large area X-ray propositional counter (LAXPC) instrument on AstroSat is aimed at providing high time resolution X-ray observations in 3–80 keV energy band with moderate energy resolution. To achieve large collecting area, a cluster of three co-aligned identical LAXPC detectors, is used to realize an effective area in access of ∼6000cm2 at 15 keV. The large detection volume of the LAXPC detectors, filled with xenon gas at ∼2 atmosphere pressure, results in detection efficiency greater than 50%, above 30 keV. In this article, we present salient features of the LAXPC detectors, their testing and characterization in the laboratory prior to launch and calibration in the orbit. Some preliminary results on timing and spectral characteristics of a few X-ray binaries and other type of sources, are briefly discussed to demonstrate that the LAXPC instrument is performing as planned in the orbit.

    • Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) in orbit performance: Calibration, background, analysis software


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      The Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) instrument on-board AstroSat has three nominally identical detectors for timing and spectral studies in the energy range of 3–80 keV. The performance of these detectors during the five years after the launch of AstroSat is described. Currently, only oneof the detector is working nominally. The variation in pressure, energy resolution, gain and background with time are discussed. The capabilities and limitations of the instrument are described. A brief account of available analysis software is also provided.

    • Detection of X-ray pulsations at the lowest observed luminosity of Be/X-ray binary pulsar EXO 2030+375 with AstroSat


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      We present the results obtained from timing and spectral studies of Be/X-ray binary pulsar EXO 2030$+$375 using observations with the Large Area Xenon Proportional Counters and Soft X-ray Telescope of AstroSat, at various phases of its Type-I outbursts in 2016, 2018, and 2020. The pulsar was faint during these observations as compared to earlier observations with other observatories. At the lowest luminosity of $2.5\times10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 0.5–30 keV energy range, $\approx$41.3 s pulsations were clearly detected in the X-ray light curves. This finding establishes the first firm detection of pulsations in EXO 2030$+$375 at anextremely low mass accretion rate to date. The shape of the pulse profiles is complex due to the presence of several narrow dips. Though pulsations were detected up to $\sim$80 keV when the source was brighter, pulsations were limited up to $\sim$25 keV during the third AstroSat observation at lowest source luminosity. A search for quasi-periodic oscillations in $2\times 10^4$ Hz to 10 Hz yielded a negative result. Spectral analysis of the AstroSat data showed that the spectrum of the pulsar was steep with a power-law index of $\sim$2. Thevalues of photon-indices at observed low luminosities follow the known pattern in sub-critical regime of the pulsar.

    • LAXPC instrument onboard AstroSat: Five exciting years of new scientific results specially on X-ray binaries


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      With its large effective area at hard X-rays, high time resolution and having co-aligned other instruments, AstroSat/LAXPC was designed to usher in a new era in rapid variability studies and wide spectral band measurements of the X-ray binaries. Over the last five years, the instrument has successfully achieved to a significant extent these Science goals. In the coming years, it is poised to make more important discoveries. This paper highlights the primary achievements of AstroSat/LAXPC in unraveling the behavior of black hole and neutron star systems and discusses the exciting possibility of the instrument’s contributionto future science.

    • AstroSat observations of eclipsing high mass X-ray binary pulsar OAO 1657-415


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      We present the results obtained from analysis of two AstroSat observations of the high mass Xray binary pulsar OAO 1657-415. The observations covered 0.681–0.818 and 0.808–0.968 phases of the $\sim$10.4 day orbital period of the system, in March and July 2019, respectively. Despite being outside theeclipsing regime, the power density spectrum from the first observation lacks any signature of pulsation or quasi-periodic oscillations. However, during July observation, X-ray pulsations at a period of 37.0375 s were clearly detected in the light curves. The pulse profiles from the second observation consist of a broad single peak with a dip-like structure in the middle across the observed energy range. We explored evolution of the pulse profile in narrow time and energy segments. We detected pulsations in the light curves obtained from0.808–0.92 orbital phase range, which is absent in the remaining part of the observation. The spectrum of OAO 1657-415 can be described by an absorbed power-law model along with an iron fluorescent emission line and a blackbody component for out-of-eclipse phase of the observation. Our findings are discussed in the frame of stellar wind accretion and accretion wake at late orbital phases of the binary.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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