Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Ultraviolet observations of the hydrogen-deficient variable star MV sagittarii

      N. Kameswara Rao K. Nandy

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      IUE observations of the hydrogen-deficient irregular variable star MV Sgr obtained in 1980 June-October and also in 1979 November are discussed. These observations show a prominent λ 2200 absorption feature. A value ofE(B — V) = 0.55 is deduced from the strength of λ 2200 band assuming that this absorption is caused by interstellar medium. The dereddened continuum obtained at different times can be fitted to a theoretical energy distribution of a helium star model with Teff = 18000 K and log g = 2.5, similar to that of BD + 10 2179. This theoretical energy distribution, after applying interstellar extinction, givesV = 12.7 mag, agreeing with the observed visual magnitude of ≃ 13 in 1979 November and 1980 June-October. Even though there was no change in the continuum flux, the ultraviolet line-spectrum shows variations. The IUE spectra of 1980 October show enhanced (circumstellar) absorption lines of Fe II, Si II, O I, C I and others along with the absorption lines of a B star. In view of the similarity of the spectroscopic phenomena of MV Sgr with that of α Sco system, a model is proposed in which a cool companion star, surrounded by dust, occasionally blows gas towards the hotter hydrogen-poor B star. This model explains the irregular light variations and the spectroscopic phenomena.

    • HD 147010: The Ap star in the reflection nebula vdB 102 in upper Scorpius region

      N. Kameswara Rao R. Rajamohan

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      HD 147010, which is in the reflection nebula vd B 102, has been found to be a hot Ap silicon star rather than a normal A supergiant. From theUBV and JHK photometry of the star, colour excessE(B - V) of 0.29 and the ratio of total-to-selective absorptionR of 4.3 have been obtained. The high value ofR implies bigger grain size and also confirms the association of the star with the nebula. The dereddened colours of the star can be fitted to a theoretical energy distribution with Teff = 13000 ± 500 K and logg = 3.6 ± 0.2. HD 147010 has also been found to be a spectrum variable; in particular, lines of Cr II show large intensity variations.

    • Ultraviolet variability of HD 62001 – The central star of the missing nebula V-V 1-7

      N. Kameswara Rao D. P. Gilra

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      IUE observations of HD 62001 do not confirm the ultraviolet variability of 0.15 mag seen from the ANS observations. These intriguing variations in ANS observations seem to be caused by a nearby (∼ 70 arcsec away) B star getting in and out of the field of view of the telescope, which had a jitter of 20 arcsec. There seems to be no evidence for the presence of a hot companion, either from the energy distribution or from UV variability. However, visual light variations are present. This, coupled with the radial velocity variations, indicates a binary nature probably of Algol type.

    • Observations of hydrogen deficient binary Upsilon sagittarii

      N. Kameswara Rao V. R. Venugopal

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      The absolute magnitudeMv of the hydrogen deficient binary υ Sgr has been estimated as -4.8 ± 1.0 from the distribution of the interstellar reddening, polarization and interstellar lines of the surrounding stars. From the ANS observations obtained at the time of the secondary eclipse, it appears that the hotter secondary is surrounded by a disc with colours of a B8-B9 star. The λ 1550 CIv absorption line arising in the stellar wind does not show any change in strength during the secondary minimum. The upper limit to the mass-loss rate from the high temperature wind is estimated as ≤ 5 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1 from the 2 cm and 6 cm radio observations.

    • VLA observations of extreme hydrogen deficient stars

      N. Kameswara Rao V. R. Venugopal A. Patnaik

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      VLA observations at 2 and 6 cm have been obtained for six hydrogen-deficient stars R CrB, HD 160641, BD — 9°4395, V348 Sgr, MV Sgr and Sgrv Upper limits to the massloss rates have been estimated for some of these using the upper limits to the radio flux density.

    • Evolution of the optical spectrum of SN 1987a in the large magellanic cloud

      B. N. Ashoka G. C. Anupama T. P. Prabhu S. Giridhar K. K. Ghosh S. K. Jain A. K. Pati N. Kameswara Rao

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      The evolution of the spectrum of SN1987a is traced from 1987 February 26 to March 31. Based on the low-resolution spectroscopic data we identify the lines of H, He I, Na I, Fe II, Sc II, Ca II which are known to be present in Type II Supernovae, and also present evidence for the existence of lines of Mg I, CaI, O I, and N I. We discuss the evolution of the Hα profile, and draw attention to its complex structure around March 30. Close to the rest wavelength of Ha a double-peaked structure appeared in the profile with a peak-to-peak separation of ∼ 1400 km s−1, suggestive of an expanding shell or disc of gas.

      Using the available broadband photometric information, we also trace the evolution of the photosphere of SN1987a assuming that it radiates like a supergiant.

    • Further VLA observations of hydrogen deficient stars

      N. Kameswara Rao V. R. Venugopal A. R. Patnaik

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      VLA observations at 6 cm have been obtained for three hydrogen-deficient objects υ Sgr, V 348 Sgr, and A bell 58. A bell 58 was also observed at 2 cm. Only upper limits to the flux density could be set for these sources. A new radio source at 6 cm was found in the field of υ Sgr.

      The upper limit for 6 cm flux density of V348 Sgr sets an upper limit to its reddening asE(B–V) ≤ 0.65. The hydrogen deficient planetary nebula A 58 shows much lower radio flux than expected from the infrared-radio flux density relationship of planetary nebulae.

    • Emission spectrum of hot R OB star MV Sgr

      N. Kameswara Rao L. Houziaux Sunetra Giridhar

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      The new spectroscopic observation of MV Sgr obtained at ESO in 1987 July shows enhanced emission lines of He I λ3889, [SII] λ4068 relative to the observations discussed by Jeffreyet al. (1988). The presence of [SII] λ4068 indicates the presence of planetary-nebulae-like envelope around the star. Although the radial velocity of the absorption lines and Fe II emission lines do agree with the velocity given by Jeffreyet al., the [SII] λ4068 and probably He I emission lines appear to behave differently.

    • CCD photometry inVRI bands of the galactic cluster NGC 2818

      R. Surendiranath N. Kameswara Rao Ram Sagar J. S. Nathan K. K. Ghosh

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      The open cluster NGC 2818 containing a planetary nebula has been observed inVRI bands using the CCD system at prime focus of the 2.3-metre Vainu Bappu Telescope. The study extending to starsV ∼ 21 magnitude establishes the distance modulus as(m-M)0 = 12.9 ±0.1 for the cluster. Based on the fitting of theoretical isochrones computed for solar metallicity, an age of 5(±1) × 108 years has been assigned to the cluster. Association of the planetary nebula with the cluster indicates that the progenitor mass of the planetary nebula on the main sequence is ≥2.5M

    • The eccentric double-lined binary BD — 1° 1004

      N. Kameswara Rao B. N. Ashoka C. Lloyd C. D. Pike D. J. Stickland

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      A new radial velocity study has been made of the highly eccentric, early-type binary BD -1° 1004 using spectra from the Kavalur Observatory. All available archival material has also been reexamined. An attempt has been made to correct for line ‘dragging’ by the secondary spectrum to improve the fit of the observed data to the orbital solutions. It is found that an earlier suggestion of apsidal regression is still possible although ω is probably constant within the errors. There remain problems and inconsistencies with other orbital elements, in particular K1 and γ

    • High resolution spectroscopy of R Coronae Borealis during the 1988— 1989 minimum

      David L. Lambert N. Kameswara Rao Sunetra Giridhar

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      Moderate-resolution spectra of the C2 Swan 0-1 bandhead, the Na I D lines and the KI resonance lines near 7660 Å obtained at minimum light during the 1988–1989 decline of R CrB are discussed and interpreted in terms of a popular model for R CrB declines. High-resolution spectra obtained at maximum light show blue-shifted chromospheric emission in the cores of the Na I D and the Sc π 4246.8 Å lines

    • Mid-ultraviolet and optical photometry of helium stars

      Gopal C. Kilambi Praveen Nagar N. Kameswara Rao

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      Mid-ultraviolet and optical photometric analysis of helium stars are presented. A linear relation exists between the effective temperature derived from model atmospheres and (1965-V)0 index. The effective temperatures derived from (1965-V)0 index are somewhat higher than that of MK spectral type estimates especially for late B-type helium objects.

    • High resolution spectroscopy of the semi-regular variable LR Sco

      Sunetra Giridhar N. Kameswara Rao David L. Lambert

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      A detailed spectroscopic investigation of LR Sco which was earlier misclassified as R CrB star is made. Atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances are determined using detailed depth-dependent model atmospheres and line synthesis technique. Most of the elements show near solar abundances.

      The strength of circumstellar components seen in Na D lines are used to derive the mass loss rate. Another independent estimate of mass loss rate is made using the observed infrared flux from 1–100Μm. These two approaches lead to nearly the same value of mass loss rate whenMvis assumed to be – 4.5 for this star.

    • The R Coronae Borealis stars — A few mere facts

      David L. Lambert N. Kameswara Rao

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      This review presents a selection of recent highlights of observations of R Coronae Borealis variables. Emphasis is placed on an abundance analysis of a complete sample (18 stars) of the warm galactic RCBs. It is shown that 14 of the 18 have very similar compositions: the iron mass fraction ranges about a factor of 3 around the solar value (assuming C/He = 3%) but abundance ratios X/Fe for elements from Na to Ba show little variation. By contrast, the other 4 stars are deficient in iron but not in Na, Si, S and some other elements. With for example, [Si/Fe] ≃ 2, the quartet is indeed ‘peculiar’. One of the quartet, V854 Cen shows depletions of elements (other than CNO) similar to the depletions seen in interstellar medium corresponding to average logn(Htot) = − 1.5. Scenarios for creating RCB from normal single and double stars are summarised.

    • Spectral variations of DY Cen

      Sunetra Giridhar N. Kameswara Rao David L. Lambert

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      Two high resolution spectra of the hot RCrB star DY Cen in the red region are compared. The photospheric absorption lines show a radial velocity variation of 12 kms-1 between 1989 July and 1992 May. Emission components to some CII lines present in 1989 are almost entirely absent in 1992. Nebular forbidden lines of [OI], [NII] and [SII] appear unchanged from 1989 to 1992

    • High resolution stellar spectroscopy with VBT echelle spectrometer

      N. Kameswara Rao S. Sriram K. Jayakumar F. Gabriel

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      The optical design and performance of the recently commissioned fiber fed echelle spectrometer of 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope are described. The use of it for stellar spectroscopic studies is discussed.

    • In-orbit Performance of UVIT and First Results

      S. N. Tandon J. B. Hutchings S. K. Ghosh A. Subramaniam G. Koshy V. Girish P. U. Kamath S. Kathiravan A. Kumar J. P. Lancelot P. K. Mahesh R. Mohan J. Murthy S. Nagabhushana A. K. Pati J. Postma N. Kameswara Rao K. Sankarasubramanian P. Sreekumar S. Sriram C. S. Stalin F. Sutaria Y. H. Sreedhar I. V. Barve C. Mondal S. Sahu

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      The performance of the ultraviolet telescope (UVIT) on-board AstroSat is reported. The performance in orbit is also compared with estimates made from the calibrations done on the ground. The sensitivity is found to be within ∼15% of the estimates, and the spatial resolution in the NUV is found to exceed significantly the design value of 1.8′′ and it is marginally better in the FUV. Images obtained from UVIT are presented to illustrate the details revealed by the high spatial resolution. The potential of multi-band observations in the ultraviolet with high spatial resolution is illustrated by some results.

    • The horizontal branch morphology of the globular cluster NGC 1261 using AstroSat


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      We present the results obtained from the UV photometry of the globular cluster NGC 1261 using far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) images acquired with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) onboard the AstroSat satellite. We utilized the UVIT data combined with HST, GAIA, and ground-based optical photometric data to construct the different UV colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). We detected blue HB (BHB), and two extreme HB (EHB) stars in FUV, whereas full HB, i.e., red HB (RHB), BHB as well as EHB is detected in NUV CMDs. The 2 EHB stars, identified in both NUV and FUV, are confirmedmembers of the cluster. The HB stars form a tight sequence in UV-optical CMDs, which is almost aligned with Padova isochrones. This study sheds light on the significance of UV imaging to probe the HB morphology in GCs.

    • In-orbit performance of UVIT over the past 5 years


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      Over the last 5 years, UVIT has completed observations of more than 500 proposals with $\sim$800 unique pointings. In addition, regular planned monitoring observations have been made and from their analysis various key parameters related to in orbit performance of UVIT have been quantified. The sensitivities of the UV channels have remained steady indicating no effect of potential molecular contamination confirming the adequacy of all the protocols implemented for avoiding contamination. The quality of the PSF through the years confirms adequacy of thermal control measures. The early calibrations obtained during the Performance Verification (PV) phase have been further revised for more subtle effects. These include flat fields and detector distortions with greater precision. The operations of UVIT have also evolved through inorbit experience, e.g. tweaking of operational sequencing, protocol for recovery from bright object detection (BOD) shutdowns, parameters for BOD thresholds, etc. Finally, some effects of charged particle hits on electronics led to optimised strategy for regular resetting. The Near-UV channel was lost in one of suchoperations. All the above in-orbit experiences are presented here.

    • Planetary nebulae with UVIT: A progress report


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      The spectral region between 1250–3000 Å contains important spectral lines to understand the morphological structures and evolution of planetary nebulae. This is the region sampled by UVIT through various filter bands both in the continuum and in emission lines (e.g.. [C iv], [He i], [Mg ii] etc.). We have mapped several planetary nebulae with different characteristics, ranging in morphology from bipolar to wide and diffuse, and in various states of ionization, comparing the UV with the X-ray morphologies wherever the X-ray images were also available. The major unanticipated discovery with UVIT has been the detection of previously undetected, cold, fluorescent, H$_2$ gas surrounding some planetary nebulae. This may be a possible solution to the missing mass problem. Here we present a review of our studies so far done (both published and on going) with UVIT.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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