• Malini Aggarwal

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

      Rajmal Jain Malini Aggarwal Raghunandan Sharma

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      Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in particular. SOXS mission is composed of two solid state detectors, viz., Si and CZT semiconductors capable of observing the full disk Sun in X-ray energy range of 4–56 keV. The X-ray spectra of solar flares obtained by the Si detector in the 4–25 keV range show evidence of Fe and Fe/Ni line emission and multi-thermal plasma. The evolution of the break energy point that separates the thermal and non-thermal processes reveals increase with increasing flare plasma temperature. Small scale flare activities observed by both the detectors are found to be suitable to heat the active region corona; however their location appears to be in the transition region.

    • X-ray Emission Characteristics of Flares Associated with CMEs

      Malini Aggarwal Rajmal Jain A. P. Mishra P. G. Kulkarni Chintan Vyas R. Sharma Meera Gupta

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      We present the study of 20 solar flares observed by ``Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)” mission during November 2003 to December 2006 and found associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) seen by LASCO/SOHO mission. In this investigation, X-ray emission characteristics of solar flares and their relationship with the dynamics of CMEs have been presented.We found that the fast moving CMEs, i.e., positive acceleration are better associated with short rise time (< 150 s) flares. However, the velocity of CMEs increases as a function of duration of the flares in both 4.1–10 and 10–20 keV bands. This indicates that the possibility of association of CMEs with larger speeds exists with long duration flare events. We observed that CMEs decelerate with increasing rise time, decay time and duration of the associated X-ray flares. A total 10 out of 20 CMEs under current investigation showed positive acceleration, and 5 of them whose speed did not exceed 589 km/s were associated with short rise time (< 150 s) and short duration (< 1300 s) flares. The other 5 CMEs were associated with long duration or large rise time flare events. The unusual feature of all these positive accelerating CMEs was their low linear speed ranging between 176 and 775 km/s. We do not find any significant correlation between X-ray peak intensity of the flares with linear speed as well as acceleration of the associated CMEs. Based on the onset time of flares and associated CMEs within the observing cadence of CMEs by LASCO, we found that in 16 cases CME preceded the flare by 23 to 1786 s, while in 4 cases flare occurred before the CME by 47 to 685 s. We argue that both events are closely associated with each other and are integral parts of one energy release system.

    • Predicting Maximum Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle 24

      Nipa J Bhatt Rajmal Jain Malini Aggarwal

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      A few prediction methods have been developed based on the precursor technique which is found to be successful for forecasting the solar activity. Considering the geomagnetic activity aa indices during the descending phase of the preceding solar cycle as the precursor, we predict the maximum amplitude of annual mean sunspot number in cycle 24 to be 111 ± 21. This suggests that the maximum amplitude of the upcoming cycle 24 will be less than cycles 21–22. Further, we have estimated the annual mean geomagnetic activity aa index for the solar maximum year in cycle 24 to be 20.6 ± 4.7 and the average of the annual mean sunspot number during the descending phase of cycle 24 is estimated to be 48 ± 16.8.

    • Evidence of Decay of Flux Ratio of Fe to Fe–Ni Line Features with Electron Temperature in Solar Flares

      Rajmal Jain Malini Aggarwal Raghunandan Sharma

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      We report observational evidence of the decay of the flux ratio of Fe to Fe–Ni line features as a function of plasma electron temperature in solar flares in comparison to that theoretically predicted by Phillips (2004). We present the study of spectral analysis of 14 flares observed by the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) – Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload. The SLD payload employs the state-of-the-art solid state detectors, viz., Si PIN and Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) devices. The sub-keV energy resolution of Si PIN detector allows us to study the Fe-line and Fe–Ni line features appearing at 6.7 and 8 keV, respectively, in greater detail. In order to best-fit the whole spectrum at one time in the desired energy range between 4 and 25 keV we considered Gaussian-line, the multi-thermal power-law and broken power-law functions. We found that the flux ratio of Fe to Fe–Ni line features decays with flare electron temperature by the asymptotic form of polynomial of inverse third order. The relative flux ratio is ∼ 30 at temperature 12 MK which drops to half, ∼ 15 at 20 MK, and at further higher temperatures it decreases smoothly reaching to ∼ 8 at ∼ 50 MK. The flux ratio, however, at a given flare plasma temperature, and its decrease with temperature is significantly lower than that predicted theoretically. We propose that the difference may be due to the consideration of higher densities of Fe and Fe–Ni lines in the theoretical model of Phillips (2004). We suggest revising the Fe and Fe–Ni line densities in the corona. The decay of flux ratio explains the variation of equivalent width and peak energy of these line features with temperature.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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