• Kumar

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Observation of hysteresis between solar activity indicators andp-mode frequency shifts for solar cycle 22

      S. C. Tripathy Brajesh Kumar Kiran Jain A. Bhatnagar

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      Using intermediate degreep-mode frequency data sets for solar cycle 22, we find that the frequency shifts and magnetic activity indicators show a “hysteresis” phenomenon. It is observed that the magnetic indices follow different paths for the ascending and descending phases of the solar cycle while for radiative indices, the separation between the paths are well within the error limits.

    • Development of a three channel photometer for UPSO, Naini Tal

      B. N. Ashoka Kumar V. C. Babu S. Seetha V. Girish S. K. Gupta Ram Sagar S. Joshi P. Narang

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      The design and performance of a portable three channel photometer installed at the Uttar Pradesh State Observatory (UPSO), Naini Tal is described. The photometer is modular and the whole unit can be disassembled as individual channels such that the system can also be used as a single channel or two channel photometer. The system also has provision to monitor a guide star. The instrument was put into operation since November 1999 on the 1m Sampurnanand telescope at UPSO, Naini Tal. Since then, it is used extensively for the ‘Survey of rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars in the northern sky’ from UPSO. Observational results using this new photometer in its initial phase of operation are discussed. The advantage of having continuous sky measurement is demonstrated.

    • Data acquisition, control, communication and computation system of solar X-ray spectrometer (SOXS) mission

      Amish B. Shah N. M. Vadher Rajmal Jain Hemant Dave Vishal Shah K. S. B. Manian Satish Kayasth Vinod Patel Girish Ubale Kirit Shah Chirag Solanki M. R. Deshpande Ramkrishna Sharma C. N. Umapathy N. Viswanath Ravi Kulkarni P. S. Kumar

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      The Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission onboard GSAT-2 Indian Spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 using GSLV-D2 rocket by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). SOXS aims to study solar flares, which are the most violent and energetic phenomena in the solar system, in the energy range of 4–56 keV with high spectral and temporal resolution. SOXS employs state-of-the-art semiconductor devices, viz., Si-Pin and CZT detectors to achieve sub-keV energy resolution requirements. In this paper, we present an overview of data acquisition, control, communication and computation of low energy payload of the SOXS mission.

    • Analysis of enhanced velocity signals observed during solar flares

      Brajesh Kumar B. Ravindra

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      Solar flares are known to release a large amount of energy. It is believed that the flares can excite velocity oscillations in active regions. We report here the changes in velocity signals in three active regions which have produced large X-class flares. The enhanced velocity signals appeared during the rise time of the GOES soft X-ray flux. These signals are located close to the vicinity of the hard X-ray source regions as observed with RHESSI. The power maps of the active region show enhancement in the frequency regime 5–6.5 mHz, while there is feeble or no enhancement of these signals in 2–4 mHz frequency band. High energy particles with sufficient momentum seem to be the cause for these observed enhanced velocity signals.

    • Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in an Inhomogeneous Coronal Plasma

      Nagendra Kumar Pradeep Kumar Shiv Singh Anil Kumar

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      We study the propagation and dissipation of slow magnetoacoustic waves in an inhomogeneous viscous coronal loop plasma permeated by uniform magnetic field. Only viscosity and thermal conductivity are taken into account as dissipative processes in the coronal loop. The damping length of slow-mode waves exhibit varying behaviour depending upon the physical parameters of the loop in an active region AR8270 observed by TRACE. The wave energy flux associated with slow magnetoacoustic waves turns out to be of the order of 106 erg cm-2 s-1 which is high enough to replace the energy lost through optically thin coronal emission and the thermal conduction belowto the transition region. It is also found that only those slow-mode waves which have periods more than 240 s provide the required heating rate to balance the energy losses in the solar corona. Our calculated wave periods for slow-mode waves nearly match with the oscillation periods of loop observed by TRACE.

    • Solar and Interplanetary Disturbances causing Moderate Geomagnetic Storms

      Santosh Kumar M. P. Yadav Amita Raizada

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      The effect of solar and interplanetary disturbances on geomagnetospheric conditions leading to 121 moderate geomagnetic storms (MGS) have been investigated using the neutron monitor, solar geophysical and interplanetary data during the period 1978–99. Further, the duration of recovery phase has been observed to be greater than the duration of main phase in most of the cases of MGS. It has further been noted that Ap-index increases on sudden storm commencement (SSC) day than its previous day value and acquires maximum value on the day of maximum solar activity. Generally, the decrease in cosmic ray (CR) intensity and Dst begins few hours earlier than the occurrence of MGS at Earth. Furthermore, negative Bz pointing southward plays a key causal role in the occurrence of MGS and the magnitude and the duration of Bz and Bav also play a significant role in the development of MGS. The solar features H𝛼, X-ray solar flares and active prominences and disappearing filaments (APDFs) which have occurred within lower helio-latitudinal/helio-longitudinal zones produce larger number of MGS. Solar flares seem to be the major cause for producing MGS.

    • Development of a Low-order Adaptive Optics System at Udaipur Solar Observatory

      A. R. Bayanna B. Kumar R. E. Louis P. Venkatakrishnan S. K. Mathew

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      A low-order Adaptive Optics (AO) system is being developed at the Udaipur Solar Observatory and we present in this paper the status of the project, which includes the image stabilization system and calibration of wavefront sensor and deformable mirror. The image stabilization system comprises of a piezo driven tip-tilt mirror, a high speed camera (955 fps), a frame grabber system for sensing the overall tilt and a Linux based Intel Pentium 4 control computer with Red Hat Linux OS. The system operates under PID control. In the closed loop, an rms image motion of 0.1–0.2 arcsec was observed with the improvement factor varying from 10–20 depending on the external conditions. Error rejection bandwidth of the system at 0 dB is 80–100 Hz. In addition to that, we report the on-going efforts in the calibration of lenslet array and deformable mirror for sensing and correcting the local tilt of the wavefront.

    • X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity

      Himali Bhatt J. C. Pandey K. P. Singh Ram Sagar Brijesh Kumar

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      We present a detailed investigation of X-ray source contents of eight young open clusters with ages between 4 to 46 Myr using archival X-ray data from XMM-NEWTON. The probable cluster memberships of the X-ray sources have been established on the basis of multi-wavelength archival data, and samples of 152 pre-main sequence (PMS) low mass (< 2𝑀), 36 intermediate mass (2-10𝑀) and 16 massive (> 10𝑀) stars have been generated. X-ray spectral analyses of high mass stars reveal the presence of high temperature plasma with temperature < 2 keV, and mean 𝐿𝑋/𝐿bol of 10-6.9. In the case of PMS low mass stars, the plasma temperatures have been found to be in the range of 0.2 keV to 3 keV with a median value of ∼ 1.3 keV, with no significant difference in plasma temperatures during their evolution from 4 to 46 Myr. The X-ray luminosity distributions of the PMS low mass stars have been found to be similar in the young star clusters under study. This may suggest a nearly uniform X-ray activity in the PMS low mass stars of ages ∼ 4–14 Myr. These observed values of 𝐿𝑋/𝐿bol are found to have a mean value of 10-3.6 ± 0.4, which is below the X-ray saturation level. The 𝐿𝑋/𝐿bol values for the PMS low mass stars are well correlated with their bolometric luminosities, that implies its dependence on the internal structure of the low mass stars. The difference between the X-ray luminosity distributions of the intermediate mass stars and the PMS low mass stars has not been found to be statistically significant. Their 𝐿𝑋/𝐿bol values, however have been found to be significantly different from each other with a confidence level greater than 99.999% and the strength of X-ray activity in the intermediate mass stars is found to be lower compared to the low mass stars. However, the possibility of X-ray emission from the intermediate mass stars due to a low mass star in close proximity of the intermediate mass star can not be ruled out.

    • X-ray Flares Observed from Six Young Stars Located in the Region of Star Clusters NGC 869 and IC 2602

      Himali Bhatt J. C. Pandey K. P. Singh Ram Sagar Brijesh Kumar

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      We present, for the first time, an analysis of seven intense X-ray flares observed from six stars (LAV 796, LAV 1174, SHM2002 3734, 2MASS 02191082+5707324, V553 Car, V557 Car). These stars are located in the region of young open star clusters NGC 869 and IC 2602. These flares detected in the XMM-Newton data show a rapid rise (10–40 min) and a slow decay (20–90 min). The X-ray luminosities during the flares in the energy band 0.3–7.5 keV are in the range of 1029.9 to 1031.7 erg s-1. The strongest flare was observed with the ratio ∼ 13 for count rates at peak of the flare to the quiescent intensity. The maximum temperature during the flares has been found to be ∼ 100 MK. The semi-loop lengths for the flaring loops are estimated to be of the order of 1010 cm. The physical parameters of the flaring structure, the peak density, pressure and minimum magnetic field required to confine the plasma have been derived and found to be consistent with flares from pre-main sequence stars in the Orion and the Taurus-Auriga-Perseus region.

    • In-orbit Performance of UVIT and First Results

      S. N. Tandon J. B. Hutchings S. K. Ghosh A. Subramaniam G. Koshy V. Girish P. U. Kamath S. Kathiravan A. Kumar J. P. Lancelot P. K. Mahesh R. Mohan J. Murthy S. Nagabhushana A. K. Pati J. Postma N. Kameswara Rao K. Sankarasubramanian P. Sreekumar S. Sriram C. S. Stalin F. Sutaria Y. H. Sreedhar I. V. Barve C. Mondal S. Sahu

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      The performance of the ultraviolet telescope (UVIT) on-board AstroSat is reported. The performance in orbit is also compared with estimates made from the calibrations done on the ground. The sensitivity is found to be within ∼15% of the estimates, and the spatial resolution in the NUV is found to exceed significantly the design value of 1.8′′ and it is marginally better in the FUV. Images obtained from UVIT are presented to illustrate the details revealed by the high spatial resolution. The potential of multi-band observations in the ultraviolet with high spatial resolution is illustrated by some results.

    • Early In-orbit Performance of Scanning Sky Monitor Onboard AstroSat

      M. C. Ramadevi B. T. Ravishankar N. Sitaramamurthy G. Meena Brajpal Singh Anand Jain Reena Yadav Anil Agarwal V. Chandra Babu Kumar Ankur Kushwaha S. Vaishali Nirmal Kumar Iyer Anuj Nandi Girish V. Vivek Kumar Agarwal S. Seetha Dipankar Bhattacharya K. Balaji Manoj Kumar Prashanth Kulshresta

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      We report the in-orbit performance of Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard AstroSat. The SSM operates in the energy range 2.5 to 10 keV and scans the sky to detect and locate transient X-ray sources. This information of any interesting phenomenon in the X-ray sky as observed by SSM is provided to the astronomical community for follow-up observations. Following the launch of AstroSat on 28th September, 2015, SSM was commissioned on October 12th, 2015. The first power ON of the instrument was with the standard X-ray source, Crab in the field-of-view. The first orbit data revealed the basic expected performance of one of the detectors of SSM, SSM1. Following this in the subsequent orbits, the other detectors were also powered ON to find them perform in good health. Quick checks of the data from the first few orbits revealed that the instrument performed with the expected angular resolution of 12’ × 2.5 and effective area in the energy range of interest. This paper discusses the instrument aspects along with few on-board results immediately after power ON.

    • Planning and Scheduling of Payloads of AstroSat During Initial and Normal Phase Observations

      R. Pandiyan S. V. Subbarao T. Nagamani Chaitra Rao N. Hari Prasad Rao Harish Joglekar Naresh Kumar Surya Ratna Prakash Dumpa Anshu Chauhan B. P. Dakshayani

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      On 28th September 2015, India launched its first astronomical space observatory AstroSat, successfully. AstroSat carried five astronomy payloads, namely, (i) Cadmium Zinc Telluride Imager (CZTI), (ii) Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC), (iii) Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), (iv) Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) and (v) Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) and therefore, has the capability to observe celestial objects in multi-wavelength. Four of the payloads are co-aligned along the positive roll axis of the spacecraft and the remaining one is placed along the positive yaw axis direction. All the payloads are sensitive to bright objects and specifically, require avoiding bright Sun within a safe zone of their bore axes in orbit. Further, there are other operational constraints both from spacecraft side and payloads side which are to be strictly enforced during operations. Even on-orbit spacecraft manoeuvres are constrained to about two of the axes in order to avoid bright Sun within this safe zone and a special constrained manoeuvre is exercised during manoeuvres. The planning and scheduling of the payloads during the Performance Verification (PV) phase was carried out in semi-autonomous/manual mode and a complete automation is exercised for normal phase/Guaranteed Time Observation (GuTO) operations. The process is found to be labour intensive and several operational software tools, encompassing spacecraft sub-systems, on-orbit, domain and environmental constraints, were built-in and interacted with the scheduling tool for appropriate decision-making and science scheduling. The procedural details of the complex scheduling of a multi-wavelength astronomy space observatory and their working in PV phase and in normal/GuTO phases are presented in this paper.

    • Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

      Avinash A. Deshpande N. Kumar

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      We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of the orbital magnetic moment turns out to be paramagnetic for our choice of parameters, varied over a wide range. This is shown specifically for the case of classical dynamics driven by a Kubo–Anderson type non-Markovian noise. Natural spatial boundary condition was imposed through (1) a soft (harmonic) confining potential, and (2) a hard potential, approximating a reflecting wall. There was no noticeable qualitative difference. What appears to be crucial to the orbital magnetic effect noticed here is the non-Markovian property of the driving noise chosen. Experimental realization of this effect on the laboratory scale, and its possible implications are briefly discussed. We would like to emphasize that the above steady-state classical orbital paramagnetic moment complements, rather than contradicts the Bohr–van Leeuwen (BvL) theorem on the absence of classical orbital diamagnetism in thermodynamic equilibrium.

    • High energy power-law tail in X-ray binaries and bulk Comptonization due to an outflow from a disk


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      We study the high energy power-law tail emission of X-ray binaries (XRBs) by a bulk Comptonization process which is usually observed in the very high soft (VHS) state of black hole (BH) XRBs and the high soft (HS) state of the neutron star (NS) and BH XRBs. Earlier, to generate the power-law tail in bulk Comptonization framework, a free-fall converging flow into BH or NS had been considered as a bulk region. In this work, for a bulk region we consider mainly an outflow geometry from the accretion disk which is bounded by a torus surrounding the compact object. We have two choices for an outflow geometry: (i) collimated flowand (ii) conical flow of opening angle $\theta_b$ and the axis is perpendicular to the disk. We also consider an azimuthalvelocity of the torus fluids as a bulk motion where the fluids are rotating around the compact object (a torus flow). We find that the power-law tail can be generated in a torus flow having large optical depth and bulk speed (>0.75$c$), and in conical flow with $\theta_b$ > $\sim 30^{\circ}$ for a low value of Comptonizing medium temperature. Particularly, in conical flow the low opening angle is more favourable to generate the power-law tail in both theHS state and the VHS state. We notice that when the outflow is collimated, then the emergent spectrum does not have power-law component for a low Comptonizing medium temperature.

    • Identifying Li-rich giants from low-resolution spectroscopic survey


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      In this paper we discuss our choice of a large unbiased sample used for the survey of red giant branch stars for finding Li-rich K giants, and the method used for identifying Li-rich candidates using low-resolution spectra. The sample has 2000 giants within a mass range of 0.8 to 3.0$M_{\odot}$. Sample stars were selected from the Hipparcos catalogue with colour (B–V) and luminosity (L/L$_{\odot}$) in such way that the sample covers RGB evolution from its base towards RGB tip passing through first dredge-up and luminosity bump. Low-resolution (R $\approx$ 2000, 3500, 5000) spectra were obtained for all sample stars. Using core strength ratios of lines at Li I 6707{\AA} and its adjacent line Ca I 6717{\AA} we successfully identified 15 K giants with A(Li) > 1.5 dex, which are defined as Li-rich K giants. The results demonstrate the usefulness of low-resolution spectra to measure Li abundance and identify Li-rich giants from a large sample of stars in relatively shorter time periods.

    • Halo orbit of regularized circular restricted three-body problem with radiation pressure and oblateness


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      In this paper, computation of the halo orbit for the KS-regularized photogravitational circular restricted three-body problem is carried out. This work extends the idea of Srivastava et al. (Astrophys. Space Sci. 362: 49, 2017) which only concentrated on the (i) regularization of the 3D-governing equations of motion, and (ii) validation of the modeling for small out-of-plane amplitude ($A_z = 110000$ km) assuming the third order analytical approximation as an initial guess with and without differential correction. This motivated us to compute the halo orbits for the large out-of-plane amplitudes and to study their stability analysis for the regularized motion. The stability indices are described as a function of out-of-plane amplitude, mass reduction factor and oblateness coefficient. Three different Sun–planet systems: the Sun–Earth, Sun–Mars and the Sun–Jupiter are chosen in this study. Stable halo orbits do not exist around the $L_1$ point, however, around the $L_2$ point stable halo orbits are found for the considered systems.

    • Application of Chebyshev collocation method for relocating of spacecrafts in Hill’s frame


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      In this study, the Chebyshev collocation method is used for solving the spacecraft relative motion of equations in Hill’s frame. Three different models of governing equations of relative motion (M1, M2, and M3) are considered and the maneuver cost required moving the spacecraft from one state to another is computed in the form of delta velocity at the first terminal point as a function of time of flight (TOF) and inter-satellite distance (ISD). A quantitative as well as qualitative difference is observed in the maneuver cost with the inclusion ofradial and/or out of plane separation in along track separation of chaser. Also, a relative comparison of path profiles is made by considering M1, M2 and M3 models. Path profiles for M3 model are found close to M2 model for short intervals for a fixed ISD, whereas path profiles for M2 and M3 do not match even for smallvalues of ISD for a fixed but long TOF. Path profiles for M1 models match to M2 model for very low values of target orbit eccentricities.

    • Optical detection of a GMRT-detected candidate high-redshift radio galaxy with 3.6-m Devasthal optical telescope


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      We report optical observations of TGSS J1054 $+$ 5832, a candidate high-redshift ($z = 4.8 \pm 2$) steep-spectrum radio galaxy, in $r$ and $i$ bands, using the faint object spectrograph and camera mounted on 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT). The source previously detected at 150 MHz from Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and at 1420 MHz from Very Large Array has a known counterpart in near-infrared bands with $K$-band magnitude of AB 22. The source is detected in $i$-band with AB24.3 $\pm$ 0.2 magnitude in theDOT images presented here. The source remains undetected in the $r$-band image at a 2.5$\sigma$ depth of AB 24.4 mag over an $1.2^{\prime\prime}\times 1.2^{\prime\prime}$ aperture. An upper limit to $i−K$ color is estimated to be $\sim$2.3, suggesting youthfulness of the galaxy with active star formation. These observations highlight the importance and potential of the 3.6-mDOT for detections of faint galaxies.

    • Modified Chaplygin gas with bulk viscous cosmology in FRW (2$+$1)-dimensional spacetime


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      In this paper we study the bulk viscous cosmology by considering modified Chaplygin gas in the framework of ($2 + 1$)-dimensional spacetime. For this we consider various form of bulk viscosity coefficient $\zeta$ and then obtain the physical parameters energy density $\rho$, Hubble and deceleration parameters, $H$ and $\rho$, respectively. Finally we discuss the stability of the model by using the speed of sound.

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      Posted on January 27, 2016

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