• K. S. Dwarakanath

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • The structure of the Cygnus loop at 34.5 MHz

      Ch. V. Sastry K. S. Dwarakanath R. K. Shevgaonkar

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      We have observed the large supernova remnant Cygnus Loop at 34.5 MHz with the low frequency radio telescope at Gauribi-danur, India. A radio map of the region with a resolution of 26 arcmin × 40 arcmin (α × δ) is presented. The integrated flux density of the Cygnus Loop at this frequency is 1245 ± 195 Jy. The radio fluxes of different parts of the nebula at this frequency were also measured and used to construct their spectra. It is found that the spectrum of the region associated with the optical nebulosity NGC 6992/5 is not flat at low frequencies, and also exhibits a break at a frequency around 400 MHz. The spectrum of the region associated with NGC 6960 also shows a break but around 1000 MHz, while the spectrum of the region associated with NGC 6974 is straight in the entire frequency range 25 to 5000 MHz. The implication of these results on the basis of existing theories of the origin of radio emission from supernova remnants is discussed.

    • Observations of the supernova remnants HB 9 and 1C 443 at 34.5MHz

      K. S. Dwarakanath R. K. Shevgaonkar Ch. V. Sastry

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      We have observed the extended supernova remnants HB 9 (G 160.5 + 2.8) and IC 443 (G 189.1 + 2.9) at 34.5 MHz with a resolution of 26 arcmin × 40 arcmin. A map of HB 9 is presented. The integrated flux density of HB 9 at 34.5 MHz is 750 ± 150 Jy. The spectral index in the frequency range from 34.5 MHz to 2700 MHz is found to be constant (- 0.58 ± 0.06) without any spectral break such as was reported earlier by Willis (1973). There is no significant variation of the spectral index across the remnant. The integrated flux density of IC 443 at 34.5 MHz is 440 ± 88 Jy. The spectral index in the frequency range from 20 MHz to 10700 MHz is - 0.36 ± 0.04. The reduction in flux at very low frequencies (10 MHz) is attributable to free-free absorption in the interstellar medium and/or in the H II region S 249.

    • A new look at the birthrate of supernova remnan

      G. Srinivasan K. S. Dwarakanath

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      We have reanalysed a homogeneous catalogue of shell-type supernova remnants and we find that the radio data are consistent with a birthrate of one in 22±3 yr. Our approach is based on the secular decrease of surface brightness of the historical remnants whose ages are precisely known. The abovementioned birthrate is significantly higher than most previous estimates which range from one in 50–150 yr, and is consistent with the supernova rate in our galaxy derived from historical observations, as well as with recent estimates of the pulsar birthrate.

    • On the supernova remnants produced by pulsars

      G. Srinivasan D. Bhattacharya K. S. Dwarakanath

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      We conclude that pulsar-driven supernova remnants (SNRs) are extremely rare objects. Indeed an analysis of the known sample of plerions suggests a very low birthrate ∼ 1 in 240 years. Long-lived and bright plerions like the Crab nebula are likely to be produced only when the pulsar has an initial period ∼ 10–20 milliseconds and a field ∼ 1012 G. Such pulsars inside rapidly expanding shell remnants should also produce detectable plerions. The extreme rarity of SNRs with such hybrid morphology leads us to conclude that these pulsars must have been born with an initial period larger than ∼ 35–70 milliseconds.

    • A modified algorithm for CLEANing wide-field maps with extended structures

      K. S. Dwarakanath A. A. Deshpande N. Udaya Shankar

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      A simple but effective modification to the conventional CLEAN algorithm is suggested. This modification ensures both stability and speed when CLEAN is applied to maps containing a mixture of point sources and extended structures. The method has been successfully applied to the recently-completed sky survey at 34.5 MHz (Dwarakanath & Udaya Shankar 1990). This survey was made using the Gauribidanur T array (GEETEE)1 in 1-D aperture synthesis mode. Since in this case the ‘dirty beam’ (point spread function) cannot be directly computed, a method to obtain this is discussed in detail. The results of this deconvolution procedure have been encouraging in terms of reduced computing time and improved dynamic range in our maps. This algorithm should find wider application in deconvolving maps which have both extended structures and point sources

    • A synthesis map of the sky at 34.5 MHz

      K. S. Dwarakanath N. Udaya Shankar

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      This paper describes a wide-field survey made at 34.5 MHz using GEETEE,1 the low frequency telescope at Gauribidanur (latitude 13°36′12′′N). This telescope was used in the transit mode and by per forming 1-D synthesis along the north-south direction the entire observable sky was mapped in a single day. This minimized the problems that hinder wide-field low-frequency mapping. This survey covers the declination range of-50° to + 70° (- 33° to +61° without aliasing) and the complete 24 hours of right ascension. The synthesized beam has a resolution of 26′ x 42′ sec (δ- 14°. 1). The sensitivity of the survey is 5 Jy/beam (1σ). Special care has been taken to ensure that the antenna responds to all angular scale structures and is suitable for studies of both point sources and extended objects

    • Low-frequency observations of the Vela supernova remnant and their implications

      K. S. Dwarakanath

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      We have studied the Vela supernova remnant in the light of the 34.5 MHz observations made with the GEETEE low frequency array. The flux densities of Vela X and YZ at 34.5 MHz are estimated to be 1800 and 3900 Jy respectively. These values, along with those from earlier observations at higher frequencies, imply spectral indices (S∞Να) of-0.16 ± 0.02 for Vela X and -0.53 ± 0.03 for Vela YZ. This situation is further substantiated by the spectral-index distribution over the region obtained between 34.5 and 408 MHz.

      The spectral-index estimates, along with other known characteristics, strengthen the earlier hypothesis that Vela X is a plerion, while Vela YZ is a typical shell-type supernova remnant. We discuss the implications of this result.

    • The interstellar clouds of adams and blaauw revisited: An HI absorption study-I

      Jayadev Rajagopal G. Srinivasan K. S. Dwarakanath

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      This investigation is aimed at clarifying the nature of the interstellar gas seen in absorption against bright O and B stars. Towards this end we have obtained for the first time HI absorption spectra towards radio sources very close to the lines of sight towards twenty five bright stars previously studied. In this paper we describe the selection criteria, the details regarding our observations, and finally present the absorption spectra. In the accompanying paper we analyse the results and draw conclusions.

    • The interstellar clouds of adams and blaauw revisited: An HI absorption study-II

      Jayadev Rajagopal G. Srinivasan K. S. Dwarakanath

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      In the preceding paper (Paper I), we presented HI absorption spectra towards radio sources very close to the lines of sight towards twenty five bright stars against which optical absorption spectra had been obtained earlier, In this paper we analyse the results and draw some conclusions.

      To summarize briefly, in most cases we found HI absorption at velocities corresponding to the optical absorption features provided one restricted oneself to velocities ≲10 kms-1. At higher velocities we did not detect any HI absorption down to an optical depth limit of 0.1 (except in four cases which we attribute to gas in systematic motion rather than clouds in random motion). After discussing various scenarios, we suggest that this trend should perhaps be understood in terms of the high velocity interstellar clouds being accelerated, heated and ablated by expanding supernova remnants.

    • GMRT detection of HI 21 cm-line absorption from the peculiar galaxy in Abell 2125

      K. S. Dwarakanath F. N. Owen

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      Using the recently completed Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope, we have detected the HI 21 cm-line absorption from the peculiar galaxy C153 in the galaxy cluster Abell 2125. The HI absorption is at a redshift of 0.2533, with a peak optical depth of 0.36. The full width at half minimum of the absorption line is 100 km s−1. The estimated column density of atomic Hydrogen is 0.7×1022(Ts/100) cm−2. The HI absorption is redshifted by ∼400km s−1 compared to the [OIII] emission line from this system. We attribute this to an infalling cold gas or to an out-flowing ionised gas, or to a combination of both as a consequence of tidal interactions of C153 with either a cluster galaxy or the cluster potential.

    • GMRT observations of interstellar clouds in the 21cm line of atomic hydrogen

      Rekhesh Mohan K. S. Dwarakanath G. Srinivasan Jayaram N. Chengalur

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      Nearby interstellar clouds with high (|ν|≥10km s−1) random velocities although easily detected in NaI and CaII lines have hitherto not been detected (in emission or absorption) in the HI 21cm line. We describe here deep Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI absorption observations toward radio sources with small angular separation from bright O and B stars whose spectra reveal the presence of intervening high random velocity CaII absorbing clouds. In 5 out of the 14 directions searched we detect HI 21cm absorption features from these clouds. The mean optical depth of these detections is ∼0.09 and FWHM is ∼10km s−1, consistent with absorption arising from CNM clouds.

    • GMRT detection of HI 21 cm associated absorption towards thez = 1.2 red quasar 3C 190

      C. H. Ishwara-Chandra K. S. Dwarakanath K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      We report the GMRT detection of associated HI 21 cm-line absorption in thez = 1.1946 red quasar 3C 190. Most of the absorption is blue-shifted with respect to the systemic redshift. The absorption, at ∼ 647.7 MHz, is broad and complex, spanning a velocity width of ∼ 600 kms−1. Since the core is self-absorbed at this frequency, the absorption is most likely towards the hotspots. Comparison of the radio and deep optical images reveal linear filaments in the optical which overlap with the brighter radio jet towards the south-west. We therefore suggest that most of the HI 21 cm-line absorption could be occurring in the atomic gas shocked by the south-west jet.

    • On the origin of the wide HI absorption line towards Sgr A*

      K. S. Dwarakanath W. M. Goss J. H. Zhao C. C. Lang

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      We have imaged a region of ∼ 5′ extent surrounding Sgr A* in the HI 21 cm-line absorption using the Very Large Array. A Gaussian decomposition of the optical depth spectra at positions within ∼ 2′ (∼ 5 pc at 8.5 kpc) of Sgr A* detects a wide line underlying the many narrow absorption lines. The wide line has a mean peak optical depth of 0.32 ± 0.12 centered at a mean velocity of V1sr = −4 ± 15 km s{−1}. The mean full width at half maximum is 119 ± 42 km s−1. Such a wide line is absent in the spectra at positions beyond ∼ 2′ from Sgr A*. The position-velocity diagrams in optical depth reveal that the wide line originates in various components of the circumnuclear disk (radius ∼ 1.3′ ) surrounding Sgr A*. These components contribute to the optical depth of the wide line in different velocity ranges. The position-velocity diagrams do not reveal any diffuse feature which could be attributed to a large number of HI clouds along the line of sight to Sgr A*. Consequently, the wide line has no implications either to a global population of shocked HI clouds in the Galaxy or to the energetics of the interstellar medium as was earlier thought.

    • A high galactic latitude HI 21 cm-line absorption survey using the GMRT: I. Observations and spectra

      Rekhesh Mohan K. S. Dwarakanath G. Srinivasan

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      We have used the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to measure the Galactic HI 21-cm line absorption towards 102 extragalactic radio continuum sources, located at high (|b| > 15°) Galactic latitudes. The Declination coverage of the present survey is δ}> - 45°. With a mean rms optical depth of ∼ 0.003, this is the most sensitive Galactic HI 21-cm line absorption survey to date. To supplement the absorption data, we have extracted the HI 21-cm line emission profiles towards these 102 lines of sight from the Leiden Dwingeloo Survey of Galactic neutral hydrogen. We have carried out a Gaussian fitting analysis to identify the discrete absorption and emission components in these profiles. In this paper, we present the spectra and the components. A subsequent paper will discuss the interpretation of these results.

    • A high galactic latitude HI 21 cm-line absorption survey using the GMRT: II. Results and interpretation

      Rekhesh Mohan K. S. Dwarakanath G. Srinivasan

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      We have carried out a sensitive high-latitude (|b| > 15°) HI 21 cm-line absorption survey towards 102 sources using the GMRT. With a 3σ detection limit in optical depth of ∼ 0.01, this is the most sensitive HI absorption survey. We detected 126 absorption features most of which also have corresponding HI emission features in the Leiden Dwingeloo Survey of Galactic neutral Hydrogen. The histogram of random velocities of the absorption features is well-fit by two Gaussians centered at V1sr ∼ 0 km s−1 with velocity dispersions of 7.6 ± 0.3 km s−1 and 21 ± 4 km s−1 respectively. About 20% of the HI absorption features form the larger velocity dispersion component. The HI absorption features forming the narrow Gaussian have a mean optical depth of 0.20 ± 0.19, a mean HI column density of (1.46 ± 1.03) × 1020 cm−2, and a mean spin temperature of 121 ± 69 K. These HI concentrations can be identified with the standard HI clouds in the cold neutral medium of the Galaxy. The HI absorption features forming the wider Gaussian have a mean optical depth of 0.04 ± 0.02, a mean HI column density of (4.3 ± 3.4) × 1019 cm−2, and a mean spin temperature of 125 ± 82 K. The HI column densities of these fast clouds decrease with their increasing random velocities. These fast clouds can be identified with a population of clouds detected so far only in optical absorption and in HI emission lines with a similar velocity dispersion. This population of fast clouds is likely to be in the lower Galactic Halo.

    • GMRTHI observations of the Eridanus group of galaxies

      A. Omar K. S. Dwarakanath

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      The GMRTHI 21 cm-line observations of galaxies in the Eridanus group are presented. The Eridanus group, at a distance of ≈ 23 Mpc, is a loose group of ≈200 galaxies. The group extends to more than 10 Mpc in projection. The velocity dispersion of the galaxies in the group is ≈240 km s−1. The galaxies are clustered into different sub-groups. The overall population mix of the group is 30% (E + S0) and 70% (Sp + Irr). The observations of 57 Eridanus galaxies were carried out with the GMRT for ≈ 200 h. HI emission was detected from 31 galaxies. The channel rms of ≈ 1 mJy beam−1 was achieved for most of the image-cubes made with 4 h of data. The corresponding HI column density sensitivity (3σ) is ≈ 1 × 1020 cm−2 for a velocity-width of ≈ 13.4 km s−1. The 3σ detection limit of HI mass is ≈ 1.2 X 107 Mpd for a line-width of 50 km s−1. Total HI images, HI velocity fields, global HI line profiles, HI mass surface densities, HI disk parameters and HI rotation curves are presented. The velocity fields are analysed separately for the approaching and the receding sides of the galaxies. These data will be used to study the HI and the radio continuum properties, the Tully-Fisher relations, the dark matter halos, and the kinematical and HI lopsidedness in galaxies.

    • TheHI content of the Eridanus group of galaxies

      A. Omar K. S. Dwarakanath

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      The HI content of galaxies in the Eridanus group is studied using the GMRT observations and the HIPASS data. A significant HI deficiency up to a factor of 2–3 is observed in galaxies in the high galaxy density regions. The HI deficiency in galaxies is observed to be directly correlated to the local projected galaxy density, and inversely correlated to the line-of-sight radial velocity. Furthermore, galaxies with larger optical diameters are predominantly in the lower galaxy density regions. It is suggested that the HI deficiency in Eridanus is due to tidal interactions. In some galaxies, evidences of tidal interactions are seen. An important implication is that significant evolution of galaxies can take place in the group environment. In the hierarchical way of formation of clusters via mergers of groups, a fraction of the observed HI deficiency in clusters could have originated in groups. The co-existence of S0s and severely HI deficient galaxies in the Eridanus group suggests that tidal interaction is likely to be an effective mechanism for transforming spirals to S0s.

    • Radio continuum and far-infrared emission from the galaxies in the Eridanus group

      A. Omar K. S. Dwarakanath

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      The Eridanus galaxies follow the well-known radio—FIR correlation. The majority (70%) of these galaxies have their star formation rates below that of the Milky Way. The galaxies that have a significant excess of radio emission are identified as low luminosity AGNs based on their radio morphologies obtained from the GMRT observations. There are no powerful AGNs (L20cm > 1023 W Hz−1) in the group. The two most far-infrared and radio luminous galaxies in the group have optical and HI morphologies suggestive of recent tidal interactions. The Eridanus group also has two far-infrared luminous but radio-deficient galaxies. It is believed that these galaxies are observed within a few Myr of the onset of an intense star formation episode after being quiescent for at least a 100 Myr. The upper end of the radio luminosity distribution of the Eridanus galaxies (L20cm ∼ 1022 W Hz−1) is consistent with that of the field galaxies, other groups, and late-type galaxies in nearby clusters.

    • The Tully-Fisher relations of the Eridanus group of galaxies

      A. Omar K. S. Dwarakanath

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      The Tully-Fisher (TF) or the luminosity-linewidth relations of the galaxies in the Eridanus group are constructed using the HI rotation curves and the luminosities in the optical and in the near-infrared bands. The slopes of the TF relations (absolute magnitudevs log2Vflat) are −8.6 ± 1.1, −10.0 ±1.5, −10.7 ±2.1, and −9.7 ±1.3 in the R, J, H, and K bands respectively for galaxies having flat HI rotation curves. These values of the slopes are consistent with those obtained from studies of other groups and clusters. The scatter in the TF relations is in the range 0.5-1.1 mag in different bands. This scatter is considerably larger compared to those observed in other groups and clusters. It is suggested that the larger scatter in the TF relations for the Eridanus group is related to the loose structure of the group. If the TF relations are constructed using the baryonic mass (stellar +HI + Helium mass) instead of the stellar luminosity, nearly identical slopes are obtained in the R and in the near-infrared bands. The baryonic TF (baryonic massvs log2Vflat) slope is in the range 3.5–4.1.

    • Preface

      K. S. Dwarakanath Lawrence Rudnick N. Udaya Shankar Tiziana Venturi

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    • Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a Massive Merging Cluster at 𝑧 = 0.443

      K. S. Dwarakanath Siddharth Malu Ruta Kale

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      We have discovered a giant radio halo in the massive merging cluster MACSJ0417.5-1154. This cluster, at a redshift of 0.443, is one of the most X-ray luminous galaxy cluster in the MAssive Cluster Survey (MACS) with an X-ray luminosity in the 0.1–2.4 keV band of 2.9 × 1045 erg s-1. Recent observations from GMRT at 230 and 610 MHz have revealed a radio halo of ∼ 1.2 × 0.3 Mpc2 in extent. This halo is elongated along the North-West, similar to the morphology of the X-ray emission from Chandra. The 1400 MHz radio luminosity (𝐿r) of the halo is ∼ 2 × 1025 W Hz-1, in good agreement with the value expected from the 𝐿x - 𝐿r correlation for cluster halos.

    • Double Relics in the Outskirts of A3376: Accretion Flows Meet Merger Shocks?

      Ruta Kale K. S. Dwarakanath Joydeep Bagchi Surajit Paul

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      The case of spectacular ring-like double radio relics in the merging, rich galaxy cluster A3376 is of great interest to study non-thermal phenomena at cluster outskirts.We present the first low frequency (330 and 150 MHz) images of the double relics using the GMRT. With our GMRT 330 MHz map and the VLA 1400 MHz map (Bagchi et al. 2006), we have constructed and analyzed the distribution of spectral indices over the radio relics. We find flat spectral indices at the outer edges of both the relics and a gradual steepening of spectral indices toward the inner regions. This supports the model of outgoing merger shock waves. The eastern relic has a complex morphology and spectral index distribution toward the inner region. This will be discussed in the context of the effect of large-scale accretion flows on the outgoing merger shocks as reported in the recent simulations.

    • A Zoo of Radio Relics: Cluster Cores to Filaments

      Ruta Kale K. S. Dwarakanath

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      Radio relics in galaxy clusters can be electrons accelerated at cluster merger shocks or adiabatically compressed fossil radio cocoons or dying radio galaxies. The spectral evolution of radio relics is affected by the surrounding thermal plasma. We present a low frequency study of three radio relics representing environments of dense cluster core (A4038), cluster outskirts (A1664) and filaments (A786). The properties of the relics are found to be consistent with the effect of confinement by external medium if the effects of projection are ignored.

    • Clusters of Galaxies and the Cosmic Web with Square Kilometre Array

      Ruta Kale K. S. Dwarakanath Dharam Vir Lal Joydeep Bagchi Surajit Paul Siddharth Malu Abhirup Datta Viral Parekh Prateek Sharma Mamta Pandey-Pommier

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      The intra-cluster and inter-galactic media that pervade the large scale structure of the Universe are known to be magnetized at sub-micro Gauss to micro Gauss levels and to contain cosmic rays. The acceleration of cosmic rays and their evolution along with that of magnetic fields in these media is still not well understood. Diffuse radio sources of synchrotron origin associated with the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) such as radio halos, relics and mini-halos are direct probes of the underlying mechanisms of cosmic ray acceleration. Observations with radio telescopes such as the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have led to the discoveries of about 80 such sources and allowed detailed studies in the frequency range 0.15–1.4 GHz of a few. These studies have revealed scaling relations between the thermal and non-thermal properties of clusters and favour the role of shocks in the formation of radio relics and of turbulent re-acceleration in the formation of radio halos and mini-halos. The radio halos are known to occur in merging clusters and mini-halos are detected in about half of the cool-core clusters. Due to the limitations of current radio telescopes, low mass galaxy clusters and galaxy groups remain unexplored as they are expected to contain much weaker radio sources. Distinguishing between the primary and the secondary models of cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms requires spectral measurements over a wide range of radio frequencies and with high sensitivity. Simulations have also predicted weak diffuse radio sources associated with filaments connecting galaxy clusters. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a next generation radio telescope that will operate in the frequency range of 0.05–20 GHz with unprecedented sensitivities and resolutions. The expected detection limits of SKA will reveal a few hundred to thousand new radio halos, relics and mini-halos providing the first large and comprehensive samples for their study. The wide frequency coverage along with sensitivity to extended structures will be able to constrain the cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms. The higher frequency (>5 GHz) observations will be able to use the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect to probe the ICM pressure in addition to tracers such as lobes of head–tail radio sources. The SKA also opens prospects to detect the ‘off-state’ or the lowest level of radio emission from the ICM predicted by the hadronic models and the turbulent re-acceleration models.

    • Editorial

      Dipankar Bhattacharya K. S. Dwarakanath Sushan Konar

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  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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