• K. R. Anantharamaiah

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • A survey of recombination line emission from the galactic plane at 325 MHz

      K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      A survey of the H 272 α recombination line at 325 MHz has been made towards 53 directions in the galactic plane using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). 34 of these directions correspond to well-known Hn regions, 12 to SNRs and 6 to ‘blank’ areas selected so that the 5 GHz continuum is a minimum over the telescope beam of 2ℴ x 6 arcmin. Observing procedure and spectra of 47 sources towards which lines are detected are presented. Hydrogen recombination lines have been detected towards all the observed directions havingl <40ℴ. Carbon recombination lines are identified in 12 of the directions. The hydrogen line intensities are found to correlate well with the total continuum intensity (which includes the nonthermal galactic background) indicating that most of the lines arise due to stimulated emission by the background radiation. A preliminary discussion on the nature of the line-emitting regions is also presented.

    • Low density ionized gas in the inner galaxy — Interpretation of recombination line observations at 325 MHz

      K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      The recent survey of H 272α recombination line (324.99 MHz) in the direction of 34 Hn regions, 12 SNRs and 6 regions of continuum minimum (‘blank’ regions) in the galactic plane is used to derive the properties of diffuse ionized gas in the inner Galaxy.

      The intensity of radio recombination lines at high frequencies is dominated by spontaneous emission in high-density gas and that at low frequencies (325 MHz) by stimulated emission in low-density gas. We have used this property to obtain the electron density in the gas in the direction of blank regions and SNRs, by combining the H 272 α measurements (preceeding paper) with the published data at higher frequencies. Further, we have imposed constraints on the electron temperature and pathlength through this gas using the observed high-frequency continuum emission, average interstellar electron density and geometry of the line-emitting regions. The derived properties of the gas are (i) electron density 0.5–6 cm-3, (ii) electron temperature 3000–8000 K and (iii) emission measures 500–3000 pc cm-6 The corresponding pathlengths are 50–200 pc.

      As the derived sizes of the low-density regions are small compared to the pathlength through the Galaxy, the low-frequency recombination lines cannot be considered as coming from a widely distributed component of the interstellar medium.

      The Hn regions studied in the above survey cannot themselves produce the H 272α lines detected towards them because of pressure broadening, optical depth, and beam dilution. However, the agreement in velocity of these lines with those seen at higher frequencies suggests that the low-frequency recombination lines arise in low-density envelopes of the Hn regions. Assuming that the temperature of the envelopes are similar to those of the cores and invoking geometrical considerations we find that these envelopes should have electron densities in the range 1–10 cm-3 and linear sizes of 30–300 pc in order to produce the observed H 272α lines.

    • On the origin of the galactic ridge recombination lines

      K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      Radio recombination lines are known to be observable at positions along the galactic ridge which are free of discrete continuum sources. Based on the results of a recent survey of H272α lines it is shown that most of the observed galactic ridge recombination lines can be explained as emission from outer low-density envelopes of normal Hn regions. The distribution of low-density ionized gas and discrete HII regions as a function of the distance from the galactic centre is also derived.

    • Ionized gas towards galactic centre — Constraints from low-frequency recombination lines

      K. R. Anantharamaiah D. Bhattacharya

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      Observations of the H272α recombination line towards the galactic centre show features near VLSR= 0, −50 and + 36 kms−1. We have combined the parameters of these features with the available H166α measurements to obtain the properties of the ionized gas present along the line of sight and also in the ‘3 kpc arm’. For the line-of-sight ionized gas we get an electron density around 7 cm−3 and a pathlength through it ∼ 10–60 pc. The emission measure and the electron temperature are in the range 500–2900 pc cm−6 and 2000–6000 K. respectively. The ionized gas in the 3 kpc arm has an electron density of 30 cm−3 and extends over 9 pc along the line of sight if we assume an electron temperature of 104 K. Using the available upper limit to the intensity of the H351α recombination line, we show that the distributed ionized gas responsible for the dispersion of pulsar signals should have a temperature >4500 K. and a minimum filling factor of 20 per cent. We also show that recombination lines from the ‘warm ionized’ gas proposed by McKee & Ostriker (1977) should be detectable in the frequency range 100–150 MHz towards the galactic centre with the sensitivity available at present.

    • A search for protocliisters atz = 3.3

      Ravi Subrahmanyan K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      We have used the Very Large Array to image a single field in a set of adjacent frequency bands around 333.0 MHz in an attempt to detect 21 cm emission from large scale H I inhomogeneities at a redshift of z = 3.3. Following the subtraction of continuum radio sources, the absence of any spectral signals apart from that expected due to the system thermal noise has been used to derive constraints on the evolutionary scenario leading to the formation of the present day clusters of galaxies. The observations rule out the existence of H I protoclusters atz = 3.3 with masses ≃3.5 × 1014M in H I gas and space density exceeding (74 Mpc)−3. This indicates that the present day rich clusters of galaxies either formed as gaseous protocluster condensates prior toz = 3.3 or else they formed through the clustering of their constituent galaxies.

    • Radio synthesis imaging of anisotropic angular broadening in the solar wind

      K. R. Anantharamaiah Pradeep Gothoskar T. J. Cornwell

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      We present Very Large Array observations at wavelengths of 2, 3.5, 6, and 20 cm, of angular broadening of radio sources due to the solar wind in the region 2–16 solar radii. Angular broadening is anisotropic with axial ratios in the range 2–16. Larger axial ratios are observed preferentially at smaller solar distances. Assuming that anisotropy is due to scattering blobs elongated along magnetic field lines, the distribution of position angles of the elliptically broadened images indicates that the field lines are non-radial even at the largest heliocentric distances observed here. At 5R⊙, the major axis scattering angle is ∼ 0.7" atλ= 6 cm and it varies with heliocentric distance asR-1.6. The level of turbulence, characterized by the wave structure function at a scale of 10 km along the major axis, normalized toλ = 20 cm, has a value 20 ± 7 at 5R⊙and varies with heliocentric distance asR-3. Comparison with earlier resu lts suggest that the level of turbulence is higher during solar maximum. Assuming a power-law spectrum of electron density fluctuations, the fitted spectral exponents have values in the range 2.8–3.4 for scale sizes between 2–35 km. The data suggests temporal fluctuations (of up to 10%) in the spectral exponent on a time scale of a few tens of minutes. The observed structure functions at different solar distances do not show any evidence for an inner scale; the upper limits are l k m at 2R⊙ and 4 km at 13R⊙. These upper limits are in conflict with earlier determinations and may suggest a reduced inner scale during solar maximum.

    • Carbon recombination lines from the Galactic plane at 34.5 & 328 MHz

      N. G. Kantharia K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      We present the results of a search for carbon recombination lines in the Galaxy at 34.5 MHz (C575α) made using the dipole array at Gauribidanur near Bangalore. Observations made towards 32 directions resulted in detections of lines, in absorption at nine positions. Followup observations at 328 MHz (C272α) using the Ooty Radio Telescope detected these lines in emission. A VLA D-array observation of one of the positions at 330 MHz yielded no detection implying a lower limit of 10′ for the angular size of the line forming region.

      The longitude-velocity distribution of the observed carbon lines indicate that the line forming regions are located mainly between 4 kpc and 7 kpc from the Galactic centre. Combining our results with published carbon recombination line data near 76 MHz (Erickson, McConnell & Anantharamaiah 1995), we obtain constraintson the physical parameters of the line forming regions. We find thatif the angular size of the line forming regions is ≥ 4°, then the range of parameters that fit the data are:Te=20–40 K,ne ∼ 0.1–0.3 cm−3 and pathlengths ∼ 0.07–0.9 pc which may correspond to thin photodissociated regions around molecular clouds. On the other hand, if the line forming regions are ∼ 2° in extent, then warmer gas (Te ∼ 60–300 K) with lower electron densities (ne ∼ 0.03–0.05 cm−3) extending over several tens of parsecs along the line of sight and possibly associated with atomic HI gas can fit the data. Based on the range of derived parameters, we suggest that the carbon line regions are most likely associated with photo-dissociation regions.

    • Hydrogen recombination lines near 327 MHz−II: A Galactic plane survey with a 2°×6′ beam

      D. Anish Roshi K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      In a previous paper we presented a low-resolution (2°×2°) survey of radio recombination lines (RRLs) at 327 MHz in the longitude rangel=330° to 0° to 89°. In this paper, we present the results of a higher resolution (2°×6′) survey of RRLs from seven 2°-wide fields and two 6°-wide fields in the same longitude range. Observations were made using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). A total of 252 spectra that were obtained are presented. RRLs were detected in almost all the individual positions within the fields withl<35° and at several individual positions within the fields in the longitude rangel=35° to 85°. Detailed analysis of the data towards the field centered at G45.5+0.0, shows that the line emission consists of discrete zones of ionized gas. The angular extent of these zones are likely to be one degree or more corresponding to a linear size of >110 pc at the kinematic distance.

    • GMRT detection of HI 21 cm associated absorption towards thez = 1.2 red quasar 3C 190

      C. H. Ishwara-Chandra K. S. Dwarakanath K. R. Anantharamaiah

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      We report the GMRT detection of associated HI 21 cm-line absorption in thez = 1.1946 red quasar 3C 190. Most of the absorption is blue-shifted with respect to the systemic redshift. The absorption, at ∼ 647.7 MHz, is broad and complex, spanning a velocity width of ∼ 600 kms−1. Since the core is self-absorbed at this frequency, the absorption is most likely towards the hotspots. Comparison of the radio and deep optical images reveal linear filaments in the optical which overlap with the brighter radio jet towards the south-west. We therefore suggest that most of the HI 21 cm-line absorption could be occurring in the atomic gas shocked by the south-west jet.

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      Posted on January 27, 2016

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