• Halton Arp

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Distribution of quasars on the sky

      Halton Arp

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      It is shown that high-redshift quasars of bright apparent magnitude are concentrated in the direction of the centre of the Local Group of galaxies. A number of them are distributed along a line originating from the Local Group companion galaxy, M 33. A similar, but shorter and fainter line of quasars is seen emanating from the spiral galaxy NGC 300 in the next nearest, Sculptor Group of galaxies.

      The concentration of bright quasars in the Local Group direction is supported by bright radio sources catalogued in high-frequency surveys. One of the consequences of this large-scale inhomogeneity is to explain the different gradient of radio source counts in the direction of the Local Supercluster, a result discovered in 1978 but never investigated further.

      Previously reported homogeneity and isotropy of radio-source counts over the sky would seem to be an effect of integrating nearby, large-scale groupings with more distant, smaller-scale groupings over different directions in the sky. More careful analyses as a function of flux strength and spectral index on various scales over the sky are now required. Previous conclusions about radio source and quasar luminosity and number evolution drawn from logN- logS counts would then need to be re-evaluated.

    • Relation of the jet in M 87 to nearby galaxies in the virgo cluster

      Halton Arp

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      The massive and active galaxies in the core of the Virgo Cluster were shown in 1968 to be aligned on either side of M 87, along the direction of the jet and counter-jet. Recent observations confirm the significance of this alignment by showing that the brightest X-ray sources, including additional large galaxies, define the same line.

      Detailed X-ray maps of M 86 show that this galaxy, which is part of the alignment, is probably blown by a wind from M 87 due to its close alignment with the jet. But the large radio E galaxy, M 84, which is 1.4 degrees away from M 87, andexactly along the line of the jet, is shown by the compression of its X-ray isophotes to be actually moving out along the line of the jet. This evidence furnishes rather spectacular support for the earlier conclusion that M 84 had originated as a proto-galaxy within M 87 and had been ejected out along the line of the jet.

    • Quasars in the central region of the Virgo Cluster

      Halton Arp

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      Quasars found from objective prism searches have been reported to show no association with galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. A simple analysis here shows significant association of the brightest of these quasars with core galaxies in the Virgo Cluster.

    • 3C 120 and the surrounding region of sky

      Halton Arp

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      Image processing performed on a series of photographs of the superluminal Seyfert galaxy, 3C 120, shows the outer optical disc to consist of fragmented segments generally pointing toward the centre. One long arm of peculiar, separated knots comes off to the W and SW. A peculiar companion is seen along the line of the NW radio jet. In the interior, optical jets are detected which are aligned along the direction of the outer radio jets.

      A region of the sky 45 ×; 25 degrees around 3C120 is investigated. It is found that:

      A nebulous filament about 3/4 degree in length points to 3C 120.

      Hydrogen clouds of redshiftz = −130 and −210 km s−1 are situated at 3 and 1 degrees on either side of 3C 120.

      Eleven low-surface-brightness galaxies with 4500 <z < 5300 km s−1 fall within a radius of 8 degrees.

      Seven quasars withz ≳ 1.35 and radio fluxesSb ≳ 0.3 fall within a radius of 10 degrees.

      It is concluded that the concentration of these objects in the vicinity of this unique, active galaxy has a negligible chance of being accidental and that all those objects of diverse redshift are at the same nearby distance. This smaller distance reduces the supposed superluminal motions in 3C 120 to quite precedented ejection velocities.

    • Additional members of the local group of galaxies and quantized redshifts within the two nearest groups

      Halton Arp

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      Galaxies of redshiftz ≲ 1000 km s−1 are investigated. In the South Galactic Hemisphere there are two large concentrations of these galaxies. One is in the direction of the centre of the Local Group, roughly aligned with M 31 and M 33. The other concentration is centred almost 80 degrees away on the sky and involves the next nearest galaxies to the Local Group, NGC 55, NGC 300 and NGC 253.

      The large scale and isolation of these concentrations, and the continuity of their redshifts require that they are all galaxies at the same, relatively close distance of the brightest group members. The fainter members of the group have higher redshifts, mimicking to some extent a Hubble relation. But if they are all at the same average distance the higher redshifts must be due to a cause other than velocity.

      The redshifts of the galaxies in the central areas of these groups all obey a quantization interval of δcz0 = 72.4 kms−1. This is the same quantization found by William Tifft, and later by others, in all physical groups and pairs which have been tested. The quantization discovered here, however, extends over a larger interval in redshift than heretofore encountered.

      The majority of redshifts used in the present analysis are accurate to ± 8 km s−1. The deviation of those redshifts from multiples of 72.4 km s-1 averages ±8.2 km s−1. The astonishing result, however, is that for those redshifts which are known more accurately, the deviation from modulo 72.4 drops to a value between 3 and 4 km s−1! The amount of relative velocity allowed these galaxies is therefore implied to be less than this extremely small value.

    • Galaxy alignments

      Halton Arp

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      It is well-known that galaxies tend to form elongated associations stretching many degrees across the sky. It is shown here that especially galaxies of about 3000 to 5000 km s-1 redshift define narrow filaments of from 10 to 50° in length. The surprising feature is that galaxies of very bright apparent magnitude tend to occur at the centre or ends of these alignments. The 20 brightest galaxies in apparent magnitude north of °= 0° are investigated here and of the 14 which are uncrowded by nearby bright galaxies, a total of 13 have well marked lines and concentrations of fainter, higher redshift galaxies

    • Quasar creation and evolution into galaxies

      Halton Arp

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      Building on evidence starting from 1966, X-ray observations have once again confirmed the association of quasars with low redshift galaxies. Enough examples of quasar-like objects ejected in opposite directions from nearby, active galaxies have accumulated so that an empirical evolutionary sequence can be outlined.

      The quasars start out with low luminosity and high (z > 2) redshift. As they travel away from their galaxy of origin they grow in size and decay in redshift. The redshifts drop in steps and near the quantized values of z = 0.6, 0.3, and 0.06 the quasars become particularly active, ejecting or breaking up into many objects which evolve finally into groups and clusters of galaxies. The observations massively violate the assumptions of the Big Bang and require continuous, episodic creation in a non expanding universe of indefinitely large size and age.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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