• G. C. Anupama

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Evolution of the optical spectrum of SN 1987a in the large magellanic cloud

      B. N. Ashoka G. C. Anupama T. P. Prabhu S. Giridhar K. K. Ghosh S. K. Jain A. K. Pati N. Kameswara Rao

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      The evolution of the spectrum of SN1987a is traced from 1987 February 26 to March 31. Based on the low-resolution spectroscopic data we identify the lines of H, He I, Na I, Fe II, Sc II, Ca II which are known to be present in Type II Supernovae, and also present evidence for the existence of lines of Mg I, CaI, O I, and N I. We discuss the evolution of the Hα profile, and draw attention to its complex structure around March 30. Close to the rest wavelength of Ha a double-peaked structure appeared in the profile with a peak-to-peak separation of ∼ 1400 km s−1, suggestive of an expanding shell or disc of gas.

      Using the available broadband photometric information, we also trace the evolution of the photosphere of SN1987a assuming that it radiates like a supergiant.

    • Spectroscopic evolution of nova LW serpentis 1978 during its early decline

      T. P. Prabhu G. C. Anupama

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      Optical spectroscopic data are presented on nova LW Serpentis 1978, obtained during its decline fromV 9.0 to ≃10.2 (compared to a value of ∼ 8.0 at recorded maximum). The spectrum and its evolution compare well with a typical nova, though the principal absorption (∼ −750 km s−l) was very weak in comparison with the diffuse-enhanced absorption (∼ −1300 km s−1). The principal absorption could be identified only in the lines of O I λλ7774, 8446, and in moderate-resolution observations of Hα. The salient features of spectral evolution follow: The near-infrared triplet of Ca n continuously weakened. O I λ8446 was always brighter than O I λ 7774, indicating continued importance of Lyman Β fluorescence. The lines due to [O I], [N II] and N n brightened considerably near the end of our observations (37 days from maximum). The Hα emission line was asymmetric all through with more emission towards the red. Its emission profile showed considerable structure. Based on the individual peaks in the Hα line profile, a kinematical model is proposed for the shell of LW Ser. The model consists of an equatorial ring, and a polar cone on the side away from the earth. The nearer polar cone did not show significant emission of Hα during our observations. The polar axis of the shell is inclined at a small angle (∼ 15‡) to the line of sight.

    • The 1985 outburst of RS Ophiuchi: Spectroscopic results

      G. C. Anupama T. P. Prabhu

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      Optical spectroscopic data on the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi obtained between 32 and 108 days after its last outburst on 1985 January 27 are presented. RS Oph was in the coronal-line phase at that time. The widths of the permitted as well as coronal-lines decreased continuously. Assuming that the ejected envelope decelerated due to its interaction with circum stellar matter, its size is deduced as a function of time. Observed fluxes in permitted lines would then imply that the electron density decreased from 3 × 109 cm#x2212;3 on day 32 to 1.8 × 108 cm-3 on day 108, for an assumed filling factor of 0.01. The helium abundance in the ejecta is estimated to be n(He)/n(H) ∼ 0.16. The mass of the unshocked ejecta was 3 × 10-6 (Φ/0.01)1/2 M, (at this stage, where f is the filling factor. Observed fluxes in coronal-lines imply that the temperature of coronal-line region decreased from 1.5 × 106 K on day 32 to 1.1 × 106 K on day 108. Most of the coronal line emission, as well as He n emission arises in shocked and cooling ejecta. This region is not isothermal, but contains material at a wide range of temperatures. Mass of the shocked ejecta is estimated to be in the range 10−7−10−6 M⊙ Based on the number of H- and He-ionizing photons, we estimate that the ionizing source evolved from a radius and temperature of (2 × l012 cm, 3 × 104 K) on day 32 to (6 × l09 cm, 3.6 × 105K) on day 204.

      We also present the spectra of RS Oph recorded in quiescent phase, 2 and 3 years after outburst, for comparison. The spectrum is dominated by that of M2 giant secondary, with superposed emission lines of H and He I

    • Gain calibration of CCD systems at VBO

      T. P. Prabhu Y. D. Mayya G. C. Anupama

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      The system gain of two CCD systems in regular use at the Vainu Bappu Observatory, Kavalur, is determined at a few gain settings. The procedure used for the determination of system gain and base-level noise is described in detail. The Photometrics CCD system at the 1-m reflector uses a Thomson-CSF TH 7882 CDA chip coated for increased ultraviolet sensitivity. The gain is programme-selected through the parameter ‘cgain’ varying between 0 and 4095 in steps of 1. The inverse system gain for this system varies almost linearly from 27.7 electrons DN-1 at cgain = 0 to 1.5 electrons DN-1 at cgain = 500. The readout noise is ≲ 11 electrons at cgain = 66. The Astromed CCD system at 2.3-m Vainu Bappu Telescope uses a GEC P8603 chip which is also coated for enhanced ultraviolet sensitivity. The amplifier gain is selected in discrete steps using switches in the controller. The inverse system gain is 4.15 electrons DN-1 at the gain setting of 9.2, and the readout noise ∼ 8 electrons.

    • Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter Telescope Observations

      Smitha Subramanian Annapurni Subramaniam Luc Simard Kim Gillies A. N. Ramaprakash G. C. Anupama C. S. Stalin Swara Ravindranath B. Eswar Reddy

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      The requirements for the production of a near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog (IRGSC) for Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) observations are identified and presented. A methodology to compute the expected J band magnitude of stellar sources from their optical (𝑔, 𝑟 , 𝑖 ) magnitudes is developed. The computed and observed J magnitudes of sources in three test fields are compared and the methodology developed is found to be satisfactory for the magnitude range, JVega = 16–22 mag. From this analysis, we found that for the production of final TMT IRGSC (with a limiting magnitude of JVega = 22 mag), we need 𝑔, 𝑟, 𝑖 bands optical data which go up to 𝑖AB ∼ 23 mag. Fine tuning of the methodology developed, such as using Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) template fitting for optimal classification of stars in the fainter end, incorporating spectral libraries in the model, to reduce the scatter, and modification of the existing colour–temperature relation to increase the source density are planned for the subsequent phase of this work.

    • A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star Catalog for Thirty Meter Telescope Observations

      Smitha Subramanian Annapurni Subramaniam T Sivarani Luc Simard G. C. Anupama Kim Gillies A. N. Ramaprakash B. Eswar Reddy

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      The near-infrared instruments in the upcoming Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be assisted by a multi conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) system. For the efficient operation of the AO system, during observations, a near-infrared guide star catalog which goes as faint as 22 mag in ${\rm J}_{{\rm Vega}}$ band is essential and such a catalog does not exist. A methodology, based on stellar atmospheric models, to compute the expected near-infrared magnitudes of stellar sources from their optical magnitudes is developed. The method is applied and validated in JHKs bands for a magnitude range of ${\rm J}_{\rm{Vega}}$ 16--22 mag. The methodology is also applied and validated using the reference catalog of PAN STARRS. We verified that the properties of the final PAN STARRS optical catalog will satisfy the requirements of TMT IRGSC and will be one of the potential sources for the generation of the final catalog. In a broader context, this methodology is applicable for the generation of a guide star catalog for any existing/upcoming near-infrared telescopes.

    • Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with Square Kilometre Array and its Precursors

      Poonam Chandra G. C. Anupama K. G. Arun Shabnam Iyyani Kuntal Misra D. Narasimha Alak Ray L. Resmi Subhashis Roy Firoza Sutaria

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      With the high sensitivity and wide-field coverage of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), large samples of explosive transients are expected to be discovered. Radio wavelengths, especially in commensal survey mode, are particularly well-suited for uncovering the complex transient phenomena. This is because observations at radio wavelengths may suffer less obscuration than in other bands (e.g. optical/IR or X-rays) due to dust absorption. At the same time, multiwaveband information often provides critical source classification rapidly than possible with only radio band data. Therefore, multiwaveband observational efforts with wide fields of view will be the key to progress of transients astronomy from the middle 2020s offering unprecedented deep images and high spatial and spectral resolutions. Radio observations of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with SKA will uncover not only much fainter bursts and verifying claims of sensitivity-limited population versus intrinsically dim GRBs, they will also unravel the enigmatic population of orphan afterglows. The supernova rate problem caused by dust extinction in optical bands is expected to be lifted in the SKA era. In addition, the debate of single degenerate scenario versus double degenerate scenario will be put to rest for the progenitors of thermonuclear supernovae, since highly sensitive measurements will lead to very accurate mass loss estimation in these supernovae. One also expects to detect gravitationally lensed supernovae in far away Universe in the SKA bands. Radio counterparts of the gravitational waves are likely to become a reality once SKA comes online. In addition, SKA is likely to discover various new kinds of transients.

    • Recurrent novae: Single degenerate progenitors of Type Ia supernovae


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      Type Ia supernovae are the result of explosive thermonuclear burning in CO white dwarfs. The progenitors of the Ia supernovae are white dwarfs in an interacting binary system. The donor companion is either a degenerate star (white dwarf) or a non-degenerate star (e.g. red giant). Recurrent novae are interacting binaries with a massive white dwarf accreting from either a main sequence, slightly evolved, or a red giant star. The white dwarf in these systems is a massive, hot white dwarf, accreting at a high rate. Recurrent novae are thought to be the most promising single degenerate progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Presented here are the properties of a few recurrent novae based on recent outbursts. The elemental abundances and their distribution in the ejected shell are discussed.

    • Optical flux and spectral characterization of the blazar PG 1553 $+$ 113 based on the past 15 years of data


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      We study flux and spectral variability of the high energy peaked TeV blazar PG 1553 $+$ 113 on diverse timescales using the data collected from 2005 to 2019 which also includes the intensive intra-night monitoring of the target. Additionally, we recorded the brightest flare of the blazar PG 1553 $+$ 113 during April 2019 when the source attained an $R$-band magnitude of 13.2. Analyzing the spectral evolution of the source during the flare gave a clockwise spectral hysteresis loop and a time lag with $V$-band variations leading to the $R$-band ones. Various statistical tests, fitting procedures and cross-correlation techniques are applied to search for periodicity and examine the color-magnitude relationship. We find a median period of ($2.21 \pm 0.04$) years along with the secondary period of about 210 days. Finally, we briefly discuss variousphysical mechanisms which are capable of explaining our findings.

    • A 10-m class national large optical-IR telescope


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      An observatory class national large optical-IR telescope (NLOT), is proposed to be built and located in the country. The telescope consists of a 10–12 m segmented primary. In order to cater to a diversity of observational programs, the telescope is designed with high throughput in both the optical and IRregions (0.3–5 $\mu$m). It should perform reasonably well up to 30 $\mu$m. The telescope and instruments should have remote operations capability, allowing for the queue as well as classical scheduling and high reliability and robustness. This article provides a brief description of the science cases that drive the telescope requirements, activities related to optics design and some thoughts on the instruments.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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