Platygaster robiniae Buhl and Duso (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) is an egg-larvae parasitoid of the black locust gall midge (Obolodiplosis robiniae) (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) which is a serious invasive pest in China, where it attacks an important hardwood species, the black locust tree, Robini pseudoacacia L. (Fabales: Fabaceae). Despite the use of P. robiniae as an effective biocontrol agent, the absence of sequence data and other molecular markers have limited its genetic applications for pest management in forests. Simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable molecular markers for population genetic structure studies. In the present study, we identified 14,123 SSRs, of which 7799 SSR primer pairs were successfully designed. Subsequently, 240 SSR were chosen and tested with 48 P. robiniae accessions from two geographically separated populations in north and south China. Of these, 34 were polymorphic, with an average of three alleles (Na) and four genotypes (NG) each. The average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.3514, expected heterozygosity (He) 0.4167, Shannon’s information index (I) 0.7143, and polymorphism information content (PIC) 0.3558, respectively. Neighbour joining analysis (bootstrap 1000) revealed that Chengdu (CD) and Dangdong (DD) popluations clustered into two main divisions, and some individuals from two popluations clustered together as the third devision, which indicated the gene flow and genetic differentiation were present between two populations. Our finding indicates that these SSR markers will be useful for further studies on thegenotype identification and genetic mapping of the genus Platygaster.