The hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channels (OSCA) are considered to be osmotic sensors that play an important role in the early stages of hyperosmotic stress response. We analysed the physicochemical properties, chromosome distribution, phylogeny, gene structure and expression pattern of the OSCA gene family in barley, and investigated the expression of HvOSCA genes in barley under drought stress by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Finally, 14 members of the OSCA gene family were identified from barley, all containing the RSN1_7TM domain and often accompanied by the RSN1_TM and PHM7_cyt domains. According to the phylogenetic relationship, they were divided into four subgroups, and each with similar gene structures. Two types of duplicate events in the HvOSCA genes family evolved under the effect of purification selection. By analysing the cis-acting elements in the HvOSCA promoter, it was speculated that the barley OSCA gene family is involved in the regulation of multiple signalling pathways. The expression of HvOSCA genes in barley tissues and their relative expression under drought stress revealed that the gene family plays a role in plant organ differentiation, growth and development and coping with abiotic stress. These results provide new valuable information for the functional analysis of HvOSCA genes and the genetic improvement of barley, and provide an importantreference for follow-up research.