Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is one of the most important warm season food legumes which contributes significantly towards nutritional security and environmental sustainability. Marker-trait association (MTA) for agronomic characters offer opportunities to deploy marker-assisted breeding for genetic amelioration of crops. This investigation was carried out with an objective to decipher population genetic structure of diverse Vigna accessions and detect microsatellite loci linked to major agronomic traits for mungbean improvement. The study was initiated with 290 diverse Vigna accessions including wild and cultivated accessions. A mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV)-resistant association mapping panel was constructed to minimize the effect of yellow mosaic disease on crop performance. Among these, 117 accessions including 55 cultivated and 63 wild accessions were found highly resistant to MYMIV. Aftermulti-environment phenotyping, a panel of 70 MYMIV-resistant mungbean accessions was subjected to analysis for assessing the population genetic structure as well as MTA for important agronomic traits. There was sufficient genetic variation among the 70-mungbean genotypes as depicted by 91 microsatellite markers. Population genetic structure analysis grouped the genotypes into five subpopulations. The locus GMES0162 (LG4) was strongly associated with days to first flowering, whereas loci CEDG 035 (LG8), DMB SSR001 (LG6), DMB SSR008 (LG4) and CEDG 168 (LG11) were associated with pod number. These marker-trait associations will be helpful in geneticimprovement of mungbean through molecular breeding.