Genetic variation in the Indian pygmy field miceMus booduga and theMus terricolor complex and in the house mouseMus musculus tytleri was analysed electro phoretically at 20 enzymatic and nonenzymatic protein loci. The results show an unusually high genetic variation in the field mice in terms of per cent polymorphism (P = 75 to 90 at 0-95 level), observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.215[ ± 0.213] to 0.314 [±0.236]) and average number of alleles(A = 2.0[± 0.858] to 2.38 [±0.868]). Very high values of P,Ho andA were also observed for the house mouse. Genetic distance (D) determined by using Nei’s (1978) formula in theM. terricolor complex ranged from the lowest,D = 0.082, betweenM. terricolor I and II to the highest,D = 0.155, betweenM. terricolor II and III. Genetic distance betweenM. booduga and theM. terricolor complex was 0-259 and that between the house mouseM. m. tytleri and theM. booduga-terricolor lineage was 0.285. TheseD values corroborate that the pygmy field and house mice are closely allied.