Articles written in Journal of Genetics

    • An improved procedure of mapping a quantitative trait locus via the EM algorithm using posterior probabilities

      Saurabh Ghosh Partha P. Majumder

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      Mapping a locus controlling a quantitative genetic trait (e.g. blood pressure) to a specific genomic region is of considerable contemporary interest. Data on the quantitative trait under consideration and several codominant genetic markers with known genomic locations are collected from members of families and statistically analysed to estimate the recombination fraction, θ, between the putative quantitative trait locus and a genetic marker. One of the major complications in estimating θ for a quantitative trait in humans is the lack of haplotype information on members of families. We have devised a computationally simple two-stage method of estimation of θ in the absence of haplotypic information using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. In the first stage, parameters of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) are estimated on the basis of data of a sample of unrelated individuals and a Bayes’s rule is used to classify each parent into a QTL genotypic class. In the second stage, we have proposed an EM algorithm for obtaining the maximum-likelihood estimate of θ based on data of informative families (which are identified upon inferring parental QTL genotypes performed in the first stage). The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether, instead of using genotypically ‘classified’ data of parents, the use of posterior probabilities of QT genotypes of parents at the second stage yields better estimators. We show, using simulated data, that the proposed procedure using posterior probabilities is statistically more efficient than our earlier classification procedure, although it is computationally heavier.

    • Dissecting the correlation structure of a bivariate phenotype: Common genes or shared environment?

      Saurabh Ghosh

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      High correlations between two quantitative traits may be either due to common genetic factors or common environmental factors or a combination of both. In this study, we develop statistical methods to extract the genetic contribution to the total correlation between the components of a bivariate phenotype. Using data on bivariate phenotypes and marker genotypes for sib-pairs, we propose a test for linkage between a common QTL and a marker locus based on the conditional cross-sib trait correlations (trait 1 of sib 1—trait 2 of sib 2 and conversely) given the identity-by-descent (i.b.d.) sharing at the marker locus. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed test under different trait parameters and quantitative trait distributions. An application of the method is illustrated using data on two alcohol-related phenotypes from a project on the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism.

    • Lack of association of PTPN1 gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes in south Indians

      Dhanasekaran Bodhini Venkatesan Radha Saurabh Ghosh Partha P. Majumder Viswanathan Mohan

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    • Statistical equivalent of the classical TDT for quantitative traits and multivariate phenotypes

      Tanushree Haldar Saurabh Ghosh

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      Clinical end-point traits are usually governed by quantitative precursors. Hence, there is active research interest in developing statistical methods for association mapping of quantitative traits. Unlike population-based tests for association, family-based tests for transmission disequilibrium are protected against population stratification. In this study, we propose a logistic regression model to test the association for quantitative traits based on a trio design. We show that the method can be viewed as a direct extension of the classical transmission diequilibrium test for binary traits to quantitative traits. We evaluate the performance of our method using extensive simulations and compare it with an existing method, family-based association test. We found that the two methods yield comparable powers if all families are considered. However, unlike FBAT, which yields an inflated rate of false positives when noninformative trios with all three individuals’ heterozygous are removed, our method maintains the correct size without compromising too much on power. We show that our method can be easily modified to incorporate multivariate phenotypes. Here, we applied this method to analyse a quantitative endophenotype associated with alcoholism.

    • Competing analytical strategies of combining associated SNPs for estimating genetic risks


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      In genomewide association study (GWAS) of a complex phenotype, a large number of variants, many with small effect sizes, are found to contribute to the variability of the phenotype. Subsequent to the identification of such variants in a GWAS, it is of interest to estimate the risk jointly conferred by the variants. We propose three different strategies of combining the risk SNPs to calculate an allele dosage score. Using simulations, we evaluate the different measures of allele dosage score with respect to the risk prediction accuracy of a binary trait and the proportion of variance explained for a quantitative trait. For a binary trait, an allele dosage score defined based on log odds ratio performs marginally better than the other two measures. For a quantitative trait, the measure based on the standardized slope coefficient in linear regression of the trait on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes performs better than the measures using the weights proportional to log P-value and the proportion of variance explained. We demonstrate the utility of these measures using a real dataon type 2 diabetes and fasting blood sugar level in a south Indian population.

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