• Ranajit Chakraborty

      Articles written in Journal of Genetics

    • Genetic variation at twentythree microsatellite loci in sixteen human populations

      Ranjan Deka Mark D. Shriver Ling Mei Yu Elisa Mueller Heidreich Li Jin Yixi Zhong Stephen T. Mcgarvey Shyam Swarup Agarwal Clareann H. Bunker Tetsuro Miki Joachim Hundrieser Shih-Jiun Yin Salmo Raskin Ramiro Barrantes Robert E. Ferrell Ranajit Chakraborty

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      We have analysed genetic variation at 23 microsatellite loci in a global sample of 16 ethnically and geographically diverse human populations. On the basis of their ancestral heritage and geographic locations, the studied populations can be divided into five major groups, viz. African, Caucasian, Asian Mongoloid, American Indian and Pacific Islander. With respect to the distribution of alleles at the 23 loci, large variability exists among the examined populations. However, with the exception of the American Indians and the Pacific Islanders, populations within a continental group show a greater degree of similarity. Phylogenetic analyses based on allele frequencies at the examined loci show that the first split of the present-day human populations had occurred between the Africans and all of the non-African populations, lending support to an African origin of modern human populations. Gene diversity analyses show that the coefficient of gene diversity estimated from the 23 loci is, in general, larger for populations that have remained isolated and probably of smaller effective sizes, such as the American Indians and the Pacific Islanders. These analyses also demonstrate that the component of total gene diversity, which is attributed to variation between groups of populations, is significantly larger than that among populations within each group. The empirical data presented in this work and their analyses reaffirm that evolutionary histories and the extent of genetic variation among human populations can be studied using microsatellite loci.

    • Genetic variation and population structure of interleukin genes among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India

      Srilakshmi M. Raj Diddahally R. Govindaraju Ranajit Chakraborty

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      The extent of genetic variation and the degree of genetic differentiation among seven ethnic populations from Karnataka, India (Bunt, Havyak, Iyengar, Lingayath, Smartha, Vaishya, Vokkaliga), was investigated using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: IL-1A 4845, IL-1B 3954, IL-1B 511 and IL-1RA 2018) of the interleukin gene cluster. Allele frequencies varied by threefold among these populations, which also differed for gene diversity and heterozygosity levels. The average degree of population subdivision among these castes was low ($F_{ST} = 0.02$). However, pair-wise interpopulation differentiation ranged from 0–7%, indicating no detectable differentiation to moderate differentiation between specific populations. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on genetic distances between populations agreed with known social and cultural data on these ethnic groups. Variation in the allele frequencies, as well as differentiation, may be attributed to differential selection and demographic factors including consanguinity among the ethnic groups. Information on the distribution of functionally relevant polymorphisms among ethnic populations may be important towards developing community medicine and public health policies.

    • Comments on 'A note on the variance of the estimate of the fixation index F'

      Ranajit Chakraborty

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