Milkfish (Chanos chanos) belongs to the family Chanidae and it is a potential candidate species for aquaculture with the best biological characteristics. This study investigates the genetic diversity and population structure of C. chanos along the Indian coast using cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). A total of 90 samples collected from five different locations across the Indian coast were sequenced for analysis using cyt b. The sequencing of a 1100-bp cyt b mtDNA fragment revealed the presence of 38 haplotypes with a haplotype diversity value of 0.835 and a nucleotide diversity value of 0.00400. The variation within and among populations accounted for about 97.33% and 2.67%, respectively. The fixation index analysis indicated that there is no significant genetic divergence among the populations from different geographical areas. Neighbour-joining tree analysis of the haplotype data showed no distinct patterns of phylogeographic structure. Results from this study indicated that there is a lack of genetic divergence between the populations of C. chanos along the Indian coast. The haplotype network showed star-like geneology which indicated the demographic expansion of the C. chanos population in these locations. The recent demographic expansion of the C. chanos population was also supported by the results of Tajima’s D statistics. Results from this study can be used for planning effective strategies for the conservation and management of the C. chanos population in the wild.