Articles written in Journal of Genetics

    • Genetics of obesity and its measures in India


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      Obesity is one of the largest global health problems associated with increased morbidity and mortality mediated by its association with several other metabolic disorders. The interaction between the genes and environment plays an important role in the manifestation of obesity. Despite a high heritability (40–70%) of obesity, the search for genetic variants associated with obesity susceptibility has been a challenging task. To date, limited studies have been conducted in India, restricted to the validation of few genetic variants identified by genomewide association studies. In this critical review, we sought to examine the current knowledge ofgenetic basis of obesity and its measures in the Indian population. A comprehensive literature search was performed using ‘PubMed’, ‘Medline’ and ‘IndMed’ databases to search for citations published until 31st May 2017, using the key terms as ‘Genetics’ AND ‘obesity’ AND ‘India’. We identified 48 potential studies which fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The findings indicated thatFTO , MC4R, TNF-α, PPAR-γ , UCP1, UCP2, LPL, LEPR, AMD1, IL6, APOE, ADIPOQ, DOK5, INSIG2, PBEF1, IL6R, Myostatin, CXCR4, HHEX, IRX3, POMC, NGN3, FOXA2, MTR, TCN and CHDH are some of the important genes studied among the Indian population. Importantly, the role of sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of obesity and body fat distribution was also reported in a few studies. Further, seven biological pathways have been identified that contribute to obesity pathogenesis in India. In conclusion, further exploration of pathway-based research on genetics of obesity can be useful for better understanding thepathophysiology of obesity in India.

    • Genetic underpinnings of lung function and COPD


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      Spirometry based measurement of lung function is a global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) standard to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Theenvironmental and behavioural risk factors for COPD includes tobacco smoking, air pollutants and biomass fuel exposure, which can induce one or more abnormal lung function patterns. While smoking remains the primary risk factor, only 15–20% smokers develop COPD, indicating that the genetic factors are also likely to play a role. According to the study of Global Burden of Disease 2015, ∼174 million people across the world have COPD. From a comprehensive literature search conducted using the ‘PubMed’ and ‘GWAS Catalogue’ databases, and reviewing the literature available, only a limited number of studies were identified which hadattempted to investigate the genetics of COPD and lung volumes, implying a huge research gap. With the advent of genomewide association studies several genetic variants linked to lung function and COPD, like HHIP, HTR4, ADAM19 and GSTCD etc., have been found and validated in different population groups, suggesting their potential role in determining lung volume and risk for COPD. This article aims at reviewing the present knowledge of the genetics of lung function and COPD.

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