Articles written in Journal of Genetics
Volume 97 Issue 3 July 2018 pp 753-771 REVIEW ARTICLE
Phosphoinositides are a class of membrane lipids that are found on several intracellular compartments and play diverse roles inside cells, such as vesicle formation, protein trafficking, endocytosis etc. Intracellular distribution and levels ofphosphoinositides are regulated by enzymes that generate and breakdown these lipids as well as other proteins that associate with phosphoinositides. These events lead to differing levels of specific phosphoinositides on different intracellular compartments. At these intracellular locations, phosphoinositides and their associated proteins, such as Rab GTPases, dynamin and BARdomain-containing proteins, regulate a variety of membrane trafficking pathways. Neurodegenerative phenotypes in disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) can arise as a consequence of altered or hampered intracellular trafficking. Altered trafficking can cause proteins such as α-synuclein to aggregate intracellularly. Several trafficking pathways are regulated by master regulators such as LRRK2, which is known to regulate the activity of phosphoinositide effector proteins. Perturbing either the levels of phosphoinositides or their interactions with different proteins disrupts intracellular trafficking pathways, contributing to phenotypes often observed in disorders such as Alzheimer’s or PDs. Thus, studying phosphoinositide regulation and its role in trafficking can give us a deeper understanding of the contribution of disrupted trafficking to neurodegenerative phenotypes.
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