• KAUSIK MANDAL

      Articles written in Journal of Genetics

    • Novel mutations in the transmembrane natriuretic peptide receptor NPR-B gene in four Indian families with acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux

      PRIYANKA SRIVASTAVA MONI TUTEJA ASHWIN DALAL KAUSIK MANDAL SHUBHA R. PHADKE

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      Acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux is a disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature predominantly affecting the middle and distal segments of the upper and lower limbs. It is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutation in NPR2 gene which impairs skeletal growth. To screen the mutations in the gene NPR2, all of its coding exons and splice junction sites were PCR amplified from genomic DNA of affected individuals of four families and sequenced. Four homozygous mutations in four different families were identified. These include three novel mutations including a deletion frameshift mutation (p.Cys586Ter), one nonsense mutation (p.Arg479Ter), one missense mutation (p.Val187Asp) and one reported missense mutation (p.Tyr338Cys). The study describes phenotypes of Indian patients and expands the mutation spectrum of the disorder.

    • Phenotypic characterization of derivative 22 syndrome: case series and review

      DEEPTI SAXENA PRIYANKA SRIVASTAVA MONI TUTEJA KAUSIK MANDAL SHUBHA R PHADKE

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      Emanuel syndrome is caused due to an additional derivative chromosome 22 and is characterized by severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, failure to thrive, preauricular tags or pits, ear anomalies, cleft or high-arched palate, micrognathia, kidney abnormalities, congenital heart defects and genital abnormalities in males. In 99% of the cases, one of the parents is a carrier of balanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22. It occurs due to malsegregation of the gametes with 3:1 segregation. In this case series, we describe four patients with diverse manifestations of this condition. The craniosynostosis observed in one case isa novel finding which has never been reported previously. This study aims to widen the phenotypic spectrum of Emanuel syndrome and provide cytogenetic microarray based breakpoints in two of the cases, thus supporting close clustering of the breakpoints of this common recurrent chromosomal rearrangement.

    • Study of the association of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) gene polymorphisms with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions in Indian population

      SHIVANI MISHRA ANUKOOL SRIVASTAVA KAUSIK MANDAL SHUBHA R. PHADKE

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      Recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestation. Various causes of RSA have been identified, still 50% cases remain unexplained after evaluation. One of the causes of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA) is supposed to be the disruption of immunological tolerance at foetaen-dashmaternal interface. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are responsible for the development of immune-tolerant environment at foetalen-dashmaternal interface and supports pregnancy. Forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (FOXP3) gene plays an important role in the development and function of Tregs. In URSA, Tregs (CD4+CD25+) are reduced in peripheral blood and decidua of pregnant women. This reduction of Tregs (CD4+CD25+) is associated with decreased expression of FOXP3 gene. This study evaluated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXP3 gene and URSA in Indian population. In this study, 100 patients with a history of URSA and 100 healthy ethnically matched women with at least one normal pregnancy and no abortion were included as case and control groups, respectively. Four SNPs of FOXP3 gene, two in the promoter region: −924A/G and −3279C/A , and two intronic, −20G/A and +459T/C , were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). −924A/G and +459T/C polymorphisms were found to be associated with URSA. −3279C/A and −20G/A polymorphism were not found to be associated with URSA. The odds ratio (OR) of mutant allele G for −924A/G polymorphism was 2.5 (95% CI 1.7–3.8; P<0.001 ) and mutant allele C for +459T/C polymorphism was 1.7 (95% CI 1.1en-dash2.6; P=0.01 ). For −20G/A polymorphism, only GG genotype was found in both URSA and controls. These results suggest that −924A/G and +459T/C polymorphisms of the FOXP3 gene might be associated with URSA and −20G/A polymorphism is likely to be rare in Indian population and might not be associated with URSA.

    • Cytogenetic microarray in structurally normal and abnormal foetuses: a five year experience elucidating in creasing acceptance and clinical utility

      MEENAKSHI LALLAR PRIYANKA SRIVASTAVA ARCHANA RAI DEEPTI SAXENA KAUSIK MANDAL SHUBHA R. PHADKE

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      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of prenatal cytogeneticmicroarray (CMA) in structurally normal and abnormal foetuses and record the acceptance rate of CMA for prenatal diagnosis over a course of five year. In 128 structurally normal and abnormal foetuses, CMA was performed along with foetal karyotype, after exclusion of aneuploidy by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction. The microarray was able to detect the pathogenic variants in 5.5% cases; the diagnostic yield in structurally abnormal foetuses was 8.8% and 4.7% in foetuses with a high aneuploidy risk. Balanced and unbalanced translocations, and low level mosaicism were detected. Reanalysis of variants of uncertain significance identified pathogenic variant. The study shows higher diagnostic yield in structurally abnormal cases, the importance of foetal karyotype and reanalysis in microarray. The acceptance rate of prenatal CMA increased five-fold over a period of five year.

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