Jennifer A. Marshall Graves
Articles written in Journal of Genetics
Volume 67 Issue 1 April 1988 pp 9-22
Somatic cell hybrids between cells of widely divergent mammalian species display a range of chromosomal and genetic anomalies which may be the equivalent of the “genomic shock” phenomena observed in many plant and animal interspecific hybrids. Mouse-kangaroo hybrids show extreme segregation and fragmentation of the kangaroo chromosomes. Here 1 show that, in addition to the chromosomal instability, some hybrids display unstable expression of three genes borne on the kangaroo active maternal X chromosome. These genes (
Volume 67 Issue 2 August 1988 pp 87-94
A Colcemid-resistant Chinese hamster line with an altered form of β-tubulin was used in studies of the expression of spindle proteins in interspecific cell hybrids. Eight hybrids between this line, and a Colcemid-sensitive mouse cell line, were studied. The altered hamster β-tubulin was not expressed as an increased resistance to Colcemid in any hybrid. Since the complete hamster chromosome complement was represented among the hybrids, the absence of altered β-tubulin is not due to segregation of the mutant hamster β-tubulin gene. We suggest either that the hamster β-tubulin gene is repressed in hybrids, or that hamster β-tubulin is excluded from the spindle in hybrid cells. We compare these findings with previous reports of the repression of other highly active, moderately repeated constitutive genes in interspecific hybrids.
Volume 68 Issue 1 April 1989 pp 1-8
Position-effect variegation refers to the inactivation, in clones of somatic cells, of genes contained in a euchromatic region relocated to near heterochromatin. On the basis of suppression of variegation by
Volume 69 Issue 2 August 1990 pp 79-86
In this study, we set out to determine whether the mutation frequency in cell hybrids is increased over the frequencies in the two parental lines, and whether this increase is related to the evolutionary divergence of the cell parents. Two test loci were chosen: forward mutation at the HPRT locus and mutation to resistance to the drug emetine. We conclude that while some cell combinations do seem to produce hybrids with higher mutation frequencies, this is not consistently so, and, indeed, mutation rates in hybrids may be higher, lower or very similar to rates in the parental lines. Further, evolutionary divergence between the parental lines does not appear to correlate to mutation frequency in the hybrids.
Volume 94 Issue 4 December 2015 pp 567-574 Review Article, Special section in honour of Mary F. Lyon
The deep divergence of mammalian groups 166 and 190 million years ago (MYA) provide genetic variation to explore the evolution of DNA sequence, gene arrangement and regulation of gene expression in mammals. With encouragement from the founder of the field, Mary Lyon, techniques in cytogenetics and molecular biology were progressively adapted to characterize the sex chromosomes of kangaroos and other marsupials, platypus and echidna—and weird rodent species. Comparative gene mapping reveals the process of sex chromosome evolution from their inception 190 MYA (they are autosomal in platypus) to their inevitable end (the Y has disappeared in two rodent lineages). Our X and Y are relatively young, getting their start with the evolution of the sex-determining 𝑆𝑅𝑌 gene, which triggered progressive degradation of the Y chromosome. Even more recently, sex chromosomes of placental mammals fused with an autosomal region which now makes up most of the Y. Exploration of gene activity patterns over four decades showed that dosage compensation via X-chromosome inactivation is unique to therian mammals, and that this whole chromosome control process is different in marsupials and absent in monotremes and reptiles, and birds. These differences can be exploited to deduce how mammalian sex chromosomes and epigenetic silencing evolved.
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