Jatropha curcas has recently emerged as an important bioenergy plant which is an ideal alternative for fossil fuels. It is particularly significant to analyse the codon usage bias (CUB) and further evaluate the intraspecific genetic divergence of three J. curcas in Asia, considering its potential economic benefits and various utilities. In the present study, the patterns of CUB were systematicallycompared, and the factors shaping CUB were identified in all three genomes of J. curcas. Our observations indicate that the preference for A/T nucleotides and A/T ending codons was present in all the three genomes. Moreover, 11 identical high-frequency codons as well as the optimal expression receptor Nicotiana tabacum were confirmed. Besides, it was observed that CUB resulted from the combined effects of natural selection and mutation pressure, while the natural selection was the determining factor. Eventually, similarity indices based onrelative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values implied low intraspecific genetic divergence in three Asian J. curcas. This study provides useful clues for improving the expression level of exogenous genes and optimizing breeding programmes by molecular-assisted breeding in J. curcas.