Molecular markers linked to QTL contributing to agronomic and fibre quality traits would be useful for cotton improvement. We have attempted to tag yield and fibre quality traits with AFLP and SSR markers using F2 and F3 populations of a cross between two Gossypium hirsutum varieties, PS56-4 and RS2013. Out of 50 AFLP primer combinations and 177 SSR primer pairs tested, 32 AFLP and four SSR primers were chosen for genotyping F2 individuals.Marker-trait associations were studied for eight agronomic and five fibre quality traits through simple and multiple regression analysis (MRA) using a set of 92 AFLP polymorphic loci and four SSR markers. Simple linear regression analysis (SLRA) identified 23 markers for eight different traits whereas multiple regression analysis identified 30 markers for at least one of the 13 traits. SSR marker BNL 3502 was consistently identified to be associated with fibre strength. While all the markers identified in SLRA were also detected in MRA, as many as 16 of the 30 markers were identified to be associated with respective traits in both F2 and F3 generations. The markers explained up to 41 per cent of phenotypic variation for individual traits. A number of markers were found to be associated with multiple traits suggesting clustering of QTLs for fibre quality traits in cotton.