G. H. Beale
Articles written in Journal of Genetics
Volume 37 Issue 2 February 1939 pp 375-388
1. The inheritance of two new flower colour factors—bright and salmon—is described. Bright is an incomplete recessive, and salmon a recessive factor hypostatic to red (
2. Two factors, red (
3. One factor, dull (
4. At least seven factors—dark wing (
5. Variation in methylation of the anthocyanin is correlated with the quantity of anthoxanthin.
6. Variation in glycosidal residues has not so far been associated with any genetic factor.
Volume 40 Issue 3 August 1940 pp 337-358
The garden forms of “
The second group depends on ten gene differences, which show complete dominance of a common wild type. The first group on the other hand depends on eight gene differences which show various degrees of dominance.
There are two sets of triple allelomorphs controlling colour, which are remarkable in that the extreme members of each series determine the same phenotype and differ only in that one is dominant, the other recessive. to the intermediate allelomorph. Possibly the dominant member is derived from a species difference, the recessive from mutation.
Aberrant ratios, modifying factors and extremely close linkages occur with exceptional frequency and are probably due to the hybrid origin of the group.
The pigment chemistry will be described later. I would be most grateful if collectors or others in South America would supply seeds from the wild of any species mentioned in this paper, or any other closely related species.
Volume 41 Issue 1 October 1940 pp 65-74
Volume 42 Issue 1-2 April 1941 pp 197-214
The genetic phenomena of mutation, dominance and epistasy are analysed to discover if they may be used as indicators of the direction of synthetic processes. From general considerations the following conclusions are drawn:
Mutation away from a standard wild type usually results in the formation of simpler substances, i.e. those requiring a smaller number of stages for their synthesis. Hence, where there is a qualitative difference brought about by a gene substitution, the substance associated with the mutant gene is likely to be an intermediate product in the synthesis of the substance associated with the wild-type gene.
Dominance cannot be used as an indicator of synthetic processes in those organisms which have a proportion of non-recessive mutants, since there is no sign that dominant mutants differ from recessive mutants in any developmental way. But dominance of the wild type in most organisms is fairly complete and therefore direction of mutation, when not already known, can be inferred.
Epistasy of the type which gives a 9:3:4
These conclusions are applied to variations affecting anthocyanins. It is deduced that cyanidin derivatives are synthetically simpler than delphinidin, but the relation of pelargonidin derivatives to the other anthocyanins is not clear. Monosides are apparently simpler than diglycosides, though more data are required on this type of substitution. All the known mutations affecting
The anthocyanin data confirm that: (1) Changes in the wild-type phenotype do not occur at random, but preponderantly in one direction, from the complex to the simple, and (2) That dominance is associated with wild-type allelomorphs
Volume 43 Issue 1-2 January 1942 pp 1-30
The usual type of genetic experiment utilizes only one of the four spores resulting from meiosis in a mother cell. In some organisms it is possible to make a genetical analysis of all four spores, and such analyses will yield considerably more information about linkage of two genes, or of gene and centromere, than does the common type of genetical experiment. The observations made on different spores of the same tetrad are, however, not independent but the problems of estimation which arise may be overcome by the method of maximum likelihood.
Estimation of the recombination fraction and its variance from completely and incompletely analysed tetrads with and without viability disturbances is considered. The relative values of the various types of data are given, and the appropriate method of combining them in a single estimation is also given. Special attention is paid to the cases of close linkage of two genes, and linkage of a gene to the centromere.
The calculation of coincidence values and their variances is discussed.
Many of the calculations are illustrated arithmetically, using data from segregation in
Volume 43 Issue 1-2 January 1942 pp 173-187
A variety of
It was found that there is a significant reduction in mutation rate with rising temperature, whether one takes as a standard a unit of stem length, a cell, or a unit of time.
It is suggested that mutations can be classified into (
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