F. A. E. Crew
Articles written in Journal of Genetics
Volume 11 Issue 2 September 1921 pp 141-181
Volume 15 Issue 3 July 1925 pp 367-374
An examination of the Herd Book of the British Goat Society and of privately kept herd records provided strong support for the contention that, as in cattle, the polled and the horned conditions in the goat constitute a Mendelian pair of characters, polled being dominant. The data were too meagre to warrant any attempt to interpret the significance of scurs. Attention is called to the interesting fact that in this matter of horn inheritance the goat apparently resembles the ox rather than the sheep.
Volume 20 Issue 2 November 1928 pp 179-186
A fowl with the left side of the body larger than the right is described. It is shown that, though the size difference is similar to that distinguishing male and female this bird was most probably not a gynandromorph.
The lateral asymmetry is explained on the assumption that an autosome carrying white had been eliminated during the early cleavage divisions of a male zygote heterozygous for the characters white and yellow epidermal pigmentation.
Volume 25 Issue 2 February 1932 pp 257-259
The mutation “white eye” is reported to have occurred once again in
A sex-linked recessive lethal, designated
Volume 25 Issue 3 April 1932 pp 359-365
Six other somewhat similar cases previously recorded and described as instances of either non-disjunction or gene mutation are discussed. The suggestion is hazarded that all of them can be regarded as examples of the loss of a whole autosome or of a part thereof.
Volume 26 Issue 3 December 1932 pp 351-358
An autosomal recessive eye colour purple in
It is suggested that the modes of interaction of these two genes, vermilion and purple, may be explained on the assumption that they are similar in nature and in function, and hence behave as allelomorphs.
Volume 26 Issue 3 December 1932 pp 359-383
Volume 27 Issue 1 March 1933 pp 95-96
The mutant coat form character “waved” is an autosomal monogenic recessive.
Volume 28 Issue 1 October 1933 pp 25-31
The existence of a monogenic autosomal recessive lethal in the rat is demonstrated. Death occurs, apparently from inanition, during the second week of lactation.
Volume 29 Issue 2 July 1934 pp 269-276
Three purple allelomorphs of
Volume 30 Issue 1 January 1935 pp 15-29
1. Snapt, tilt and sepia are three genes on the left arm of the
2. Stubble, a dominant, and glass form the nucleus of the 3rd linkage group, and short4 and jaunty that of the 4th. Tangled, it is thought, belongs to the 5th.
3. It is suggested that: (i) a portion of the left arm of the 3rd chromosome of
4. It is suggested that the apparently disproportionate effect of some genes affecting eye colour is in reality cumulative.
Volume 30 Issue 2 March 1935 pp 233-241
1. Seventeen autosomal colour mosaics in the budgerigar (
2. The chromosome number is 50–60. There are three size classes: the
Volume 32 Issue 1 February 1936 pp 5-15
The character Plexus is described and shown to be based not on a single gene but on the inverted order of some of the genes in the
A series of mosaics arising in the Plexus stock is described and the origin and nature of the condition discussed.
Volume 33 Issue 1 August 1936 pp 61-102
In order to be in a position to examine the conclusions which McDougall has reached, 18 generations of rats have been trained. The figures provided by 1445 experimentais and 1014 controls are compared with those which McDougall derived from 21 generations of rats of the same origin.
Criticism is levelled at the methods adopted by McDougall for presenting his figures, and especially at his lack of adequate control.
In the case of my rats the average number of errors per rat made by individuals of the tank-trained stock has not decreased with the passing of the generations, and there is no difference whatsoever between the scores of the experimental and control stocks. I have encountered no evidence which would suggest that rats of the trained and control stocks respectively can be distinguished one from the other by differences in behaviour. This being so I cannot accept the results which McDougall obtained as being in themselves strong enough to carry the interpretation that he has placed upon them.
Analysis of my own pedigrees shows definitely that genetic factors are heavily concerned in the establishment of the scores. Two main classes of rats are involved, quick and slow, and in a general way quickness behaves as a dominant, slowness as a recessive. The parent-offspring correlation is 0.3. A “quick” strain has been developed as the result of consistent favourable selection. To “fix” a slow strain has proved to be a much more difficult task. The reasons for this are discussed.
I submit that there is no need to postulate, in explanation of the fact that the average scores of the earlier and later generations of McDougall’s rats differ, that some new quality has been acquired and is being transmitted, for the average score of a generation is determined by the proportion of quick and slow rats within it, and these proportions can, within limits, be prearranged.
Among my rats there is a great excess of those which tend to leave the tank habitually by one route during the first phase of their training when the light is constant and equal on both sides of the tank and when the platforms are not alive. A considerable number of rats reacted to light as light in the second phase of their training when the light was alternating but the platforms were not alive. Actually 29 experimental and 10 control rats “learnt” without receiving a single shock.
The relation of handedness and photophobia to the score is discussed.
I do not propose to carry the main study further. The search for the genetic basis of handedness and of photophobia is being continued.
Volume 34 Issue 1 February 1937 pp 91-96
Volume 37 Issue 1 December 1938 pp 211-228
Both types are found among the offspring of homozygous and of heterozygous Plexus females.
The haploid areas, in all but one case, carried the paternal genome.
The diploid areas of haplo-diploid mosaics having nearly always been female, must usually have been derived from the same male pro-nucleus as the haploid area. This indicates that in these cases the male pronucleus, in the first division after fertilization, has not yet united effectively with the female pro-nucleus. The latter either fails to divide at this division, or one of its daughter nuclei fails to become incorporated in a zygote nucleus and is eventually lost.
Double fertilization is probably occasioned by failure of the two daughter cells resulting from the second maturation division to separate from each other.
Volume 38 Issue 1-2 July 1939 pp 341-344
Rex, a new, viable and fertile autosomal dominant coat texture character in the mouse, is described. Though phaenotypically very similar indeed to if not identical with Caracul, it is shown to be genetically distinct therefrom. The two genes are on different autosomes. When its linkage relations have been established Rex will serve as a most useful marker for further genetical work with the mouse.
Volume 39 Issue 2 January 1940 pp 225-227
Volume 39 Issue 2 January 1940 pp 273-283
1. The case is reported of a chromosome termed
2. If the breakage and reunion occurred by a process of crossing-over, the chromocentral regions of
3. In its new position on the
4. When the
Volume 41 Issue 2-3 January 1941 pp 267-274
A skeletal abnormality, termed pigtail, in the house mouse is described which phenotypically resembles flexed tail. In a certain small proportion of litters, one or more young with spina bifida aperta occurred, especially in the more highly inbred litters. Genetically, pigtail is a recessive character, caused either by two complementary factors, or—more probably—by one main gene interacting with a number of modifiers which affect the penetration. Penetration is never 100%. In genetically pigtail litters, it varies round about 20%. It is not noticeably dependent on age of mother, degree of expression in the parents, degree of inbreeding or selection; but there exists a significant, though slight, negative correlation between litter-size and percentage of manifestation in homozygous litters, suggesting some intra-uterine, non-genetical influence on the development of the abnormality.
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