Articles written in Journal of Genetics

    • Isolation and characterization of themajor histocompatibility complex DQA1 and DQA2 genes in gayal (Bos frontalis)


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      The species origin of Yunnan gayal has been controversial since many years. However, few recent genetic studies have suggested that it has perhaps originated from the hybridization between male Bos frontalis and female B. taurus or B. indicus. Being an important semi-wild bovid species, this has also been listed under the red list of International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. However, there is limited information available about the immunogenicity of this precarious species of Bos. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a pivotal role in immune response to infectious diseases in vertebrates. In the present study, we have investigated the structural and functional characteristics and possible duplication of the MHC-DQA genes in gayal (B. frontalis). Two full-length cDNA clones of the MHC-DQA genes were amplified and designated as Bofr-DQA1 (DQA*0101) and Bofr-DQA2 (DQA*2001) with GenBank accession numbers KT318732 and KT318733, respectively. A comparison between Bofr- DQA1, Bofr-DQA2 and to other MHC-DQA molecules from different animal species showed that nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of these two identifiedMHC-DQA genes have more similarity to alleles of specific DQA1 and DQA2 molecules from other Ruminantia species than to each other. The phylogenic investigation also demonstrated a large genetic distance between these two genes than to homologous from the other species. The large genetic distance between Bofr-DQA1 and Bofr-DQA2, and the presence of different bovine DQA putative motifs clarify that these sequences are nonallelic type. These results could suggest that duplication of the DQA genes has also occurred in gayal. The findings of the present study have strengthened our understanding to MHC diversity in rare ruminants and mutation of immunological functions, selective and evolutionary forces that affect MHC variation within and between species.

    • Deletion/insertion polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in gayal (Bos frontalis)


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      Resistance to fatal disease bovine spongiformencephalopathy (BSE), due to misfolded prion protein in cattle, is associated with a 23-bp indel polymorphism in the putative promoter and a 12-bp indel in intron 1 of the PRNP gene. Gayal (Bos frontalis) is an important semiwild bovid species and of great conservation concern, but till today these indel polymorphisms have not been evaluated in gayals. Therefore, we collected 225 samples of gayals and evaluated the genetic indel polymorphism in the two regions of this PRNP gene. The results revealed high allelic frequencies of insertions at these indel sites: 0.909 and 0.667 for, respectively, the 23 bp and 12 bp indels, both also with significant genotype frequencies (χ2: 9.81; 23 bp and χ2: 43.56; 12 bp). At the same time, the haplotype data showed indel polymorphisms with extremely low deletion (0.01) in both regions of the PRNP gene. We compared these data with those reported for healthy and BSE-affected cattle (Bos taurus) breeds from two European countries, Germany and Switzerland, and significant difference (P <0.001) was observed between BSE-affected as well as the healthy cattle. Further, our datawere also extensively compared with previous reports on BSE and highly significant (P <0.001) outcomes were observed. This result suggested negligible genetic susceptibility to BSE in gayals. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive deciphering information about the PRNP indel polymorphisms of 23 bp and 12 bp in gayals, a semiwild species of China.

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