Nonsyndromic hypodontia is a congenital absence of less than six permanent teeth, with a most common subtype maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA). Mutations in several genes have been described in severe tooth agenesis. The aim of this study was to search for the variants in wingless-type MMTV-integration site family member (WNT10A), paired box 9 (PAX9) and axis inhibitor 2 (AXIN2) genes, and investigate their potential role in the pathogenesis of non-syndromic hypodontia. Clinical examination and panoramic radiograph were performed in the cohort of 60 unrelated Slovak patients of Caucasian origin with nonsyndromic hypodontia including 37 MLIA cases and 48 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from buccal swabs and Sanger sequencing of WNT10A, PAX9 and AXIN2 was performed. Altogether, we identified 23 single-nucleotide variants, of which five were novel. We have found three rare nonsynonymous variants in WNT10A (p.Gly165Arg; p.Gly213Ser and p.Phe228Ile) in eight (13.33%) of 60 patients. Analysis showed potentially damaged WNT10A variant p.Phe228Ile predominantly occurred only in MLIA patients, and with a dominant form of tooth agenesis (odds ratio (ORdom) = 9.841; P = 0.045; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.492–196.701;ORrec = 0.773; P = 1.000; 95% CI 0.015–39.877). In addition, the WNT10A variant p.Phe228Ile showed a trend associated with familial nonsyndromic hypodontia (P = 0.024; OR= 1.20; 95% CI 0.97–1.48). After Bonferroni correction, these effects remained with borderline tendencies. Using a 3D WNT10A protein model, we demonstrated that the variant Phe228Ile changes the proteinsecondary structure. In PAX9 and AXIN2, common variants were detected. Our findings suggest that the identified WNT10A variant p.Phe228Ile could represent risk for the inherited nonsyndromic hypodontia underlying MLIA. However, further study in different populations is required.