Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a perennial vegetable and a high oil-yielding crop (4–6 t/ha). There is a large scope for increasing the oil yield by selecting elite planting material for breeding programme in germplasm evaluation, characterization and utilization. In the present study, a diverse range of 150 oil palm genotypes were characterized using 12 quantitative variables with 54genomic microsatellite markers. A wide variation was observed in the morphological traits among indigenous populations. Highly significantand positive correlations were observed between vegetative dry matter (VDM) and total dry matter (TDM) (0.862), and height and height increment (0.838). The first two principal component analyses explained 67.7% of total variation among morphological traits. The genotypes IC0610001-59 (Pune-2) and IC0610001-60 (Pune-2) were found highly promising based on less height increment, more TDMwith high yield. For the mapping study, general linear model (GLM) approach, quantitative-trait loci (QTL) for annual height increment, number of bunches, bunch yield and bunch index were linked to simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci mEgCIR3649 with phenotypic variance of 15.08, 10.43, 11.74, 15.39. TDM and VDM were linked to mEgCIR0192 (27.34 and 24.19%), mEgCIR3684 (16.84 and 18.30%), SPSC00163 (18.8 and 15.39%) and mEgCIR0555 (16.47 and 18.81%), with at a significant threshold (P) level of B0.001 and by mixed linear model (MLM) approach. TDM was linked to mEgCIR0555 with phenotypic variance of 20.72%, bunch yield and bunch index were linked to mEgCIR2813 at phenotypic variance of 17.11% and 12.88%, respectively, at a significant threshold (P) level of B0.01.