• Arvind Kumar

      Articles written in Journal of Genetics

    • Genetic control of leaf-blade morphogenesis by the INSECATUS gene in Pisum sativum

      Sushil Kumar Swati Chaudhary Vishakha Sharma Renu Kumari Raghvendra Kumar Mishra Arvind Kumar Debjani Roy Choudhury Ruchi Jha Anupama Priyadarshini Arun Kumar

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      To understand the role of INSECATUS (INS) gene in pea, the leaf blades of wild-type, ins mutant and seven other genotypes, constructed by recombining ins with uni-tac, af, tl and mfp gene mutations, were quantitatively compared. The ins was inherited as a recessive mutant allele and expressed its phenotype in proximal leaflets of full size leaf blades. In ins leaflets, the midvein development was arrested in distal domain and a cleft was formed in lamina above this point. There was change in the identity of ins leaflets such that the intercalary interrupted midvein bore a leaf blade. Such adventitious blades in ins, ins tl and ins tl mfp were like the distal segment of respective main leaf blade. The ins phenotype was not seen in ins af and ins af uni-tac genotypes. There was epistasis of uni-tac over ins. The ins, tl and mfp mutations interacted synergistically to produce highly pronounced ins phenotype in the ins tl mfp triple mutant. The role(s) of INS in leaf-blade organogenesis are: positive regulation of vascular patterning in leaflets, repression of UNI activity in leaflet primordia for ectopic growth and in leaf-blade primordium for indeterminate growth of rachis, delimitation of proximal leaflet domain and together with TL and MFP homeostasis for meristematic activity in leaflet primordia. The variant apically bifid shape of the affected ins leaflets demonstrated that the leaflet shape is dependent on the venation pattern.

    • Genetic interaction and mapping studies on the leaflet development (lld) mutant in Pisum sativum

      Sushil Kumar Raghvendra Kumar Mishra Arvind Kumar Swati Chaudhary Vishakha Sharma Renu Kumari

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      In Pisum sativum, the completely penetrant leaflet development (lld) mutation is known to sporadically abort pinnae suborgans in the unipinnate compound leaf. Here, the frequency and morphology of abortion was studied in each of the leaf suborgans in 36 genotypes and in presence of auxin and gibberellin, and their antagonists. Various lld genotypes were constructed by multifariously recombining lld with a coch homeotic stipule mutation and with af, ins, mare, mfp, tl and uni-tac leaf morphology mutations. It was observed that the suborgans at all levels of pinna subdivisions underwent lld-led abortion events at different stages of development. As in leafblades, lld aborted the pinnae in leaf-like compound coch stipules. The lld mutation interacted with mfp synergistically and with other leaf mutations additively. The rod-shaped and trumpet-shaped aborted pea leaf suborgans mimicked the phenotype of aborted leaves in HD-ZIP-III-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Suborganwise aborted morphologies in lld gnotypes were in agreement with basipetal differentiation of leaflets and acropetal differentiation in tendrils. Altogether, the observations suggested that LLD was the master regulator of pinna development. On the basis of molecular markers found linked to lld, its locus was positioned on the linkage group III of the P. sativum genetic map.

    • Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves and sessile leaf-like stipules and architectures of heritable leaf and stipule mutants in Pisum sativum suggest that its simple lobed stipules and compound leaf represent ancestral forms in angiosperms

      Arvind Kumar Vishakha Sharma Moinuddin Khan Mali Ram Hindala Sushil Kumar

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      In angiosperms, leaf and stipule architectures are inherited species-specific traits. Variation in leaf and stipule sizes, and forms result from the interaction between abiotic and biotic stimuli, and gene regulatory network(s) that underlie the leaf and stipule developmental programme(s). Here, correspondence between variation in leaf and stipule architectures described for extant angiosperms and that induced mutationally and by imposition of stress in model angiosperm species, especially in Pisum sativum, was detected. Following inferences were drawn from the observations.

      Several leaf forms in P. sativum have origin in fusion of stipule and leaf primordia. Perfoliate (and amplexicaul and connate) simple sessile leaves and sessile adnate leaves are the result of such primordial fusions. Reversal of changes in the gene regulatory network responsible for fusion products are thought to restore original stipule and leaf conditions.

      Compound leaf formation in several different model plants, is a result of promotion of pathways for such condition by gene regulatory networks directed by KNOX1 and LEAFY transcription factors or intercalation of the gene networks directed by them.

      Gene regulatory network for compound leaves in P. sativum when mutated generates highly complex compound leaves on one hand and simple leaves on other hand. These altered conditions are mutationally reversible.

      Simple leaves in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana despite overexpression of KNOX1 orthologues do not become compound.

      All forms of leaves, including simple leaf, probably have origins in a gene regulatory network of the kind present in P. sativum.

    • Fitness differences due to allelic variation at Esterase-4 locus in Drosophila ananassae


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      Esterases are known to play essential role inmetabolism, reproductive physiology and behaviour of Drosophila. Esterases are highly polymorphic enzymes in Drosophila, but the polymorphism of these enzymes is not well studied in Drosophila ananassae. Recent studies on esterase polymorphism in D. ananassae revealed that Est-4 locus comprises Est-4 active and Est-4 null allelesdepending on enzymatic activity. For the in vivo functional characterization of this locus, homozygous lines of genotypes Est-4 active and Est-4 null were derived from the flies collected from Gangtok, Sikkim, in 2006. Mating propensity, mating pattern, fecundity, fertility and productivity of female, life span and triglycerides level were investigated in the flies bearing either Est-4 active or Est-4 null genotypes. Results showed that mating occurred randomly with nonsignificant difference in mating propensity between Est-4 active and Est-4 null flies. However, a significant difference in fecundity and strong dependency between genotypes and the rate of fertility was found. The median values of progeny produced per female were 24 and 20 for Est-4 active and Est-4 null genotypes,respectively. The life span assay showed a significant difference in the survivorship between the two genotypes. Triglycerides level was higher in Esterase-4 active larval haemolymph as well as in mature flies’ homogenate than that of Esterase-4 null. Thus, Esterase-4 locus of D. ananassae has its role in fecundity, fertility and productivity of female, life span control and lipid metabolism.

    • Genetic structuring of Drosophila bipectinata in Indian natural populations based on the distribution of cosmopolitan inversions


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      Genetic differentiation among different natural populations of a species depends upon the environmental factors and the evolutionary forces that operate on them. In this study, seven Indian natural populations of D. bipectinata, two from north and five from south India, have been studied for their chromosomal inversion polymorphism. A total of nine paracentric autosomal inversions were recorded from these seven places but only three of them, present on the 2L, 2R and 3L were found to be cosmopolitan in distribution. In all the populations, the frequency of standard gene arrangement was found to be high than their respective cosmopolitan inversion gene arrangement. The average heterozygosity (Ho) of cosmopolitan inversions increases from north to south. There is a latitudinal cline in the distribution of three cosmopolitan inversion arrangements because their frequency increases with the decreasing latitude, i.e. from north to south India. A comparison of the genetic profile of two north Indian and five south Indian natural populations of D. bipectinata reveals the role of natural selection as well as bottleneck effect in the genetic structuring of these populations which may be due to their varying ecological conditions to which they are constantly encountered. Further, the presence of all kinds of paracentric inversions in individual populations was analysed following Poisson distribution to see whether these inversions occur randomly in natural populations or not and the results indicate that north Indian populations show the random occurrence of these inversions than the populations derived from the south.

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