Articles written in Journal of Genetics
Volume 97 Issue 5 December 2018 pp 1493-1507 REVIEW ARTICLE
Ulcerative colitis (UC), one of the two clinical subtypes of inflammatory bowel disease is perceived as a potential 'sleeping giant' in the Indian subcontinent. Clinical manifestation is overall believed to be the same across ethnic groups but overwhelming genetics from large European and fewer non-European studies have revealed shared as well as unique disease susceptibly signaturesbetween them, pointing to population specific differences at genomic and environmental levels. A systematic recount of the four major eras in UC genetics spanning earliest linkage analysis, cherry picked candidate gene association studies, unbiased genomewide association studies, their logical extension in trans-ethnic setting (Immunochip study), lastly whole exome sequencing efforts forrare variant burden; and lessons learnt thereof in context of genetically distinct Indian population was attempted in this review. Genetic heterogeneity manifesting at allelic/locus level across these approaches has been the consistent finding through the range of pan India studies. On the other hand, these salient findings also highlight the limitations of even the best of these genetic leadsfor prognostic/clinical application. The imminent need, therefore, for the UC research community to adopt newer approaches/tools with improved study design to (i) gain better insight into genetic/mechanistic basis of disease; (ii) identify biomarkers of immediate translational value; and (iii) develop new/alternate therapeutic options is emphasized at the end.