Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Assessing the emissions of $\rm{CO}$, $\rm{SO}_{2}$, and $\rm{NO_{X}}$ and predicting potential zones of $\rm{CO}$ concentration from sugarcane factories in Egypt


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      Air pollution causes significant environmental and health problems around the world. The present study assesses the emission of $\rm{CO}$, $\rm{SO}_{2}$, and $\rm{NO_{X}}$ from six sugarcane factories (SCFs) in Egypt, which are using two dominant fuels, bagasse and natural gas. The detected CO emission and concentrations levels from the stacks of SCFs that used bagasse were higher ($\rm{1751–3030 mg/Nm^{3}}$) than those using a mixture of bagasse and natural gas ($\rm{555 mg/Nm^{3}}$), as well as natural gas only ($\rm{169.2–246.5 mg/Nm^{3}}$). The emission of CO is higher than permissible levels, but $\rm{SO_{2} (2.5–26.5 mg/Nm^{3}})$ and $\rm{NO_{X} (25.5–149.75 mg/Nm^{3}})$ emissions in all kinds of fuels are within the permissible levels. Dispersion of CO in the ambient from stack emission from Kom Ombo SCF is simulated using the Ministry of Economic, Trade, and Industry Low-Rise Industrial Source dispersion (METI-LIS) model. The results predicted the higher risk zone (>10 ppmv) extends $\sim$1 km around the KSCF and occupies the near middle part of the plume, but the lower zone (<0.1 ppmv) occupies the outer zone and extends for several kilometers. Measurements in the ambient air validated the predicted model, which revealed that people living in areas about 1 km south and west downwind of the KSCF are exposed to higher levels of CO concentration. Usage of bagasse in SCFs needs to be replaced by natural gas for the reduction in emission of pollutants. Moreover, pollutants emitted from the SCFs should be monitored periodically to control the emission for healthy environment.

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