• Waqas Ahmed

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Peshawar District, Pakistan

      Ahmad Hammad Khaliq Muhammad Waseem Sarfraz Khan Waqas Ahmed Muhammad Asif Khan

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      The seismic provisions for the Building Code of Pakistan were revised after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and these have resulted in the introduction of a macrozonation ground motion hazard map in the seismic provisions. The macrozonation map proposes a peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the return period of 475 yr for Pakistan for flat rock sites. After the macrozonation, the next step is to develop the surface ground motion assessment studies for the cities, districts and tehsils of Pakistan. In this study, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach is used for the Peshawar District. The PSHA, consistent with the classical Cornell approach, is carried out to obtain the seismic hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra of PGA values for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 yr at a grid spacing of 0.1$^{\circ }\times$ 0.1$^{\circ }$. The PGA for Peshawar at 150, 475, 975 and 2475 yr return period is estimated as 0.23, 0.34, 0.39 and 0.45g, respectively, for rock flat outcrop site conditions. The surface ground motion maps proposed in this study incorporate the local soil effects using amplification factors based on shear wave velocity obtained as a proxy to the topographic slope. The resultant ground surface hazard assessment proposes the PGA value of 0.63g for the return period of 475 yr and 0.89g for the return period of 2475 yr. The maps developed in the current study are important inputs for the structural designing, risk assessment and land use planning of the Peshawar District.

    • Mapping sediment thickness of the Abbottabad basin, Pakistan

      Zahid Hussain Sarfraz Khan Muhammad Asif Khan Muhammad Waseem Waqas Ahmed

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      The Abbottabad basin is mainly composed of different loose and indurated sediments such as fine to medium grain silt and clay and large to medium sized boulders and cobbles, occupying a low land between the hills. These sediments are primarily stream deposits and variably compacted in the form of rock, suggested name Havelian group after their maximum thickness into Havelian area. Numerous streams converge at the Abbottabad intermontane basin from the north–northeast and join to form a single channel that passes through a narrow gorge on the western side of the Sirban hill. Geomorphically, the Abbottabad city is underlain by a thick sequence of loose Quaternary–Recent alluvial sediments, making it vulnerable to seismic hazards. This research determines the sediment thickness for the Abbottabad basin using a geophysical approach. In this regard, thirteen lithologic profiles were developed in the Abbottabad basin at different locations. These profiles were ultimately combined to develop a Fence diagram showing a generalized stratigraphic pattern of the Quaternary–Recent unconsolidated sediments in the basin. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and H/V analysis were used to characterize the site and shear wave velocity at a different location of Abbottabad basin and surrounding area. Based on H/V data (using Tromino Engy Plus instrument) Abbottabad basin and immediate surroundings have an average fundamental frequency from 0.5 to 9 Hz, which represents the deposition of alluvial sediments (i.e., stiff and dense soil).

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