• Vivek S Kale

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Implications of new ⁴⁰Ar / ³⁸Ar age of Mallapur Intrusives on the chronology and evolution of the Kaladgi Basin, Dharwar Craton, India

      Shilpa Patil Pillai Kanchan Pande Vivek S Kale

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      The Kaladgi Basin on the northern edge of the Dharwar craton has characters diverse from the other epicratonic Purana basins of Peninsular India. Sedimentological studies in the basin have established the presence of three cycles of flooding separated by an event of intra-basinal deformation accompaniedby low grade incipient metamorphism. The overall structural configuration of the basin indicates its development by supracrustal extension accompanied by shearing in a trans-tensional regime during the Mesoproterozoic. This was followed by sagging that yielded Neoproterozoic sedimentation in a successornested basin. ⁴⁰Ar / ³⁸Ar dating

      of an intrusive mafic dyke along the axial plane of a fold has yielded a plateau age of 1154±4Ma. This helps constraint the age of the various events during the evolution of this basin.

    • Rajgad GPB: A megaporphyritic flow field, Western Deccan Volcanic Province, India


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      We describe the distribution and characters of a megaporphyritic basalt flow field that was arguably the earliest described ‘giant phenocryst basalt’ (GPB) from the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP). It is a marker horizon exposed in a > 30,000 $km^{2}$ area below the Mahabaleshwar Formation in the western DVP. Its presence, distribution and stratigraphic importance as a regional marker horizon are enumerated. Available geochronological and paleomagnetic data suggest that the stratigraphic position of the Rajgad GPB coincides with polarity reversal in Chron 29 recorded from the basaltic lava sequence of the Western DVP.

    • Multi-tiered, disrupted crust of a sheet lava flow from the Diveghat Formation of Deccan Traps: Implications on emplacement mechanisms


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      The crust is a vesicular layer that caps the compact core of sheet lava flows. We describe for the first time, a crust composed of multiple layers (each distinguished by a chilled glassy rind) from the Diveghat Formation in the western Deccan Volcanic Province. The multiple layers of crust developed over a single compact core of a single sheet lava flow, are shown to have been sequentially deformed in multiple phases. This is interpreted to have resulted from the endogenous emplacement of lava in successive pulses (rather than as a continuous stream) during the extrusion of the sheet lava flow. This model has several implications on the mechanism of emplacement of sheet flows in continental flood basalt provinces.

    • Geometry and age of a mafic dyke emplaced along the Bhetkheda–Mohana Lineament, Central Narmada valley, Deccan Volcanic Province


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      The Bhetkheda–Mohana Lineament is traced as a continuous lineament across nearly 100 km in the central Narmada valley across the Deccan Trap basalts and their basement of Proterozoic sediments. While a major length of this lineament is occupied by a basaltic dyke, there are segments where the dyke is completely absent, and the lineament is represented by a regional fracture/shear/fault zone. At its eastern extremity, this dyke is exposed intruding along the axis of a synclinorium of the Vindhyan Supergroup sediments, as a 4-km long string of hillocks of picturesque columnar jointed basalt. It has the presence of ignimbrites and a thin basaltic flow (resting on the sediments) surrounding it, suggesting the presence of an eruptive vent. This dyke intrudes the Mandleshwar Formation lava flows dated at 67–66 Ma and is associated with the Narmada dyke swarm. It has given $^{40}$Ar/$^{39}$Ar age of 66.6±0.5 Ma. Its chemical characters conform to those of the basaltic flows of the Malwa Traps, indicating a common source and emplacement history. This is a unique example of a dyke that was emplaced along a preexisting fracture zone cutting through the Proterozoic basement as well as the Deccan Trap lavas, with a distinct petrological identity with the host lava flows, indicating its feeder relation. It endorses the comparison of the Icelandic mode of fissure-fed flood basalts with the eruptive history of the Deccan Volcanic Province.

    • Unified stratigraphy of Western Deccan Volcanic Province: A GPB perspective


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      The Western Ghats sections of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) are considered the ‘type area’ for most of the established models of its eruptive history and age. The prevailing chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Western DVP based on the study of these sections are largely comparable but have subtle conceptual and practical differences. Although based on higher resolution data, the latter failed to get widespread acceptance. Horizons of giant phenocryst basalts (GPBs) have been used in both stratigraphic classifications as marker horizons. They can be traced across many tens of kilometers andserve as efficient and easy-to-map horizons during field mapping. We demonstrate the lateral continuity of the GPB horizons across the Western DVP to reiterate their relevance in the stratigraphic classification of the otherwise uniform pile of basaltic flows. We propose a unified stratigraphy for this subprovince, which reconciles existing chemostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic classifications.

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