• V Subramanian

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Input by Indian rivers into the world oceans

      V Subramanian

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      The chemical, sediment and total load carried by the major river basins in India—Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus (Jhelum), Godavari, Krishna, Narmada, Tapti, Mahnadi and Cauvery have been calculated, based partly on new set of data and partly on existing data. There is a significant amount of chemical load transported by all the Indian rivers, and for global mass transfer calculation, these cannot and should not be ignored. The chemical mass transfer during the monsoon is not surprisingly small, as would be expected for excess discharge and dilution controlled run-off. The sediment mass transfer from non-Himalyan rivers, all within the same range of magnitude, accounts for less than a tenth of that of the Ganges but during the monsoon, except for Cauvery, all the Indian rivers carry a sediment load of greater than 1000 ppm. The total mass transfer from the Indian subcontinent accounts for 6·5 per cent of the global transfer.

      Except for the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, the erosion rates are similar for all Indian basins, independent of their size and these rates are agreeable with the continental earth average. The Ganges-Brahmaputra basin erosion rates are highest on the continental earth. Based on the average rate of denudation of the Indian subcontinent, the mean elevation of this landmass will be that of the present day mean sea level in 5 million years from now. The average denudation rate of 2·1 cm/100 years is different from the calculated average sedimentation rate of 2·1 cm/100 years is different from the calculated average sedimentation rate of 6·7 cm/100 years in the Bay of Bengal suggesting that an accurate erosion rate in the continent is needed to determine sedimentation rate in the oceans.

      The chemical and sediment mass transfer rates appear to have a logarithmic linear relationship on a global scale, as against the reported negative logarithmic trend for North America alone.

    • Preliminary studies on the geochemistry of the Cauvery river basin

      V Subramanian L van t’ Dack R van Grieken

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      Samples of water and sediments were collected over a three year period from the entire region of Cauvery river basin excluding the estuary. On the basis of our observations, we have calculated the average composition of the Cauvery river at several locations from the catchment to the river mouth, the downstream profile of sediment load, annual erosion rates, solute and sediment fluxes and have predicted on long term changes. The sediment chemistry was determined by x-ray fluorescence (xrf) technique, and calculated mean compositions of the Cauvery and its tributary bed and the suspended sediment were compared to those of world average river sediments. Downstream profiles of some of the elements appear to be controlled by size and mineralogical characteristics besides local factors specific to the location of the samples. Interelemental relationships indicated good correlation among the transition elements indicating their co-genetic behaviour within the drainage basin.

    • The variational technique of data assimilation using adjoint equations in a shallow water model

      Sujit Basu V Subramanian P C Pandey

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      The variational technique of data assimilation using adjoint equations has been illustrated using a nonlinear oceanographic shallow water model. The technique consists of minimizing a cost function representing the misfit between the model and the data subject to the model equations acting as constraints. The problem has been transformed into an unconstrained one by the use of Lagrange multipliers. Particular emphasis has been laid on finite difference formulation of the algorithm. Several numerical experiments have been conducted using simulated data obtained from a control run of the model. Implications of this technique for assimilating asynoptic satellite altimeter data into ocean models have been discussed.

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