Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Magnetic susceptibility investigation of the saline water intrusion problem: The LAMP-BHU protocol


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      A protocol is presented to perform bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) analysis of simulated seawater/saline water using MFK2-FA Multi-Function Kappabridge instrument at Laboratory for Analyses of Magnetic and Petrofabric (LAMP), BHU to obtain a correlation between BMS and hydrogeological data such as salinity and conductivity. This LAMP-BHU Protocol involves the preparation of simulated saline water. It has been developed after BMS measurement of 20 simulated seawater samples in different frequencies, i.e., F1 (976 Hz), F2 (3904 Hz), and F3 (15616 Hz) to prepare a standard data. This standard data is further validated with field data. Fourteen water samples are collected from the field, and hydrogeological data (salinity and conductivity) and BMS at three different frequencies were measured. Further linear regression analysis is performed on the measured data. This protocol yields efficient results with F3, followed by F1 and F2 having an R$^{2}$ value of 0.84, 0.60, and 0.54, respectively, for salinity, and 0.79, 0.51, and 0.40, respectively, for conductivity. Salinity and conductivity are showing a negative trend with all the frequencies. This protocol enables to delineate saline water intruded zone or extent of saline intrusion using BMS analysis. The proposed protocol is a rapid and efficient mode of determination of the saline water intruded zones in the coastal aquifers for prioritisation of groundwater assets facilitating freshwater availability in coastal areas.


      $\bullet$ Protocol is developed for Saline water intrusion studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements.

      $\bullet$ Magnetic susceptibility, salinity and conductivity was measured for simulated and field samples.

      $\bullet$ Inverse relationship observed between magnetic susceptibility w.r.t. salinity and conductivity.

      $\bullet$ High frequency magnetic susceptibility provides better results for gradual increase in salinity.

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