Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Performance of water vapour retrieval from MODIS and ECMWF and their validation with ground based GPS measurements over Varanasi


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      Water vapour is highly variable over tropical region and sensitive to weather condition, monsoon onset, green house effect, and pollution level in Ganga River. In the present study, variability in water vapour derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) over Varanasi (25$^{\circ}$20$^{\prime}$N, 82$^{\circ}$59$^{\prime}$E) during the period 2007–2010 has been studied. The GPS-derived water vapour (WV) has been compared with those retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and ECMWF. The GPS-WV data concurrent to MODIS and ECMWF timing has been correlated to perform further analysis. To study the accuracy of water vapour retrieved from the MODIS and ECMWF, root mean square error (RMSE), absolute error (AE), correlation and standard deviation in it are computed with respect to GPS-derived water vapour. Analysis shows an annual correlation $R^{2}$ = 86%, RMSE = 9.5 mm and AE (MODIS–GPS) = 7.0 mm in MODIS retrieval and annual correlation R$^{2}$ = 86%, RMSE = 6.1 mm and AE (ECMWF–GPS) = 2.4 mm in ECMWF reanalysis retrieval. Correlation of ECMWF and MODIS datasets with the GPS datasets are found to vary significantly with seasons. The correlation is high during monsoon season and low during spring season. Water vapour is found to be an indicator for the onset of monsoon.


      $\bullet$ Accuracy of water vapor (WV) retrieved from the MODIS and ECMWF with respect to GPS WV.

      $\bullet$ High Annual correlation of $R^{2}$ = 0.86 between both MODIS–GPS and ECMWF–GPS.

      $\bullet$ The correlation is high during monsoon season and low during spring season.

      $\bullet$ The performance of ECMWF is found to be better than that of MODIS.

    • COVID-19 lockdown induced air pollution reduction over India: A lesson for future air pollution mitigation strategies


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      Air pollution is one of the biggest problems worldwide and needs to be addressed potentially with the implementation of updated stringent policies and legislative laws. The nationwide lockdown imposed to prevent the COVID-19 outbreak, has given us a unique opportunity to understand the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the total atmospheric pollutant burden on a global as well as regional scale. Thus, in the present study, we try to investigate the impact of COVID-19 induced lockdown on common ambient air pollutants (i.e., PM$_{2.5}$, NO$_2$, and SO$_2$) concentration over 22 cities in India using in-situ measurement under a network of Centre Pollution and Control Board (CPCB). A significant reduction in the mean mass concentration of all the studied air pollutants (i.e., PM$_{2.5}$, NO$_2$, and SO$_2$) (nearly 10–70%) is found during different phases of lockdown which reached within the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (i.e., NAAQS). The reduction in studied air pollutants is more prominent during the first phase of lockdown (mainly NO$_2$) which could be due to the complete shutdown of industrial activities. The outcome of the present study will be helpful for policymakers to design cost-effective and accurate air pollution mitigation strategies for the development of a sustainable environment. The study also suggests that well-planned short-term and periodical lockdown could be an alternative effective tool of air pollution mitigation.

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