Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Evaluating the seismic hazard in the Kachchh Region, western India using the river gradient length anomaly technique


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      In the present study, we assess seismic hazard potential and surface deformation pattern along and across the strike of major active faults in the intra-plate Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB). Towards this, we adopted river Gradient Length Anomaly (GLA) technique, which detects recent tectonic deformation along a river profile on local and regional scales. The major deviations along the river profile can be correlated with exogenic (erosion/sedimentation/anthropogenic) and endogenic (active tectonic movement) processes. We analysed 130 river profiles for GL anomalies, over an area of ${\sim}$26,700 km$^{2}$ in the KRB to identify possible locations that have undergone active tectonic deformation associated with the fault movement. The acquired results show that the higher magnitude negative GL anomalies (uplift) are observed proximal to the fault zones. Our estimates reveal that, around 13% of the study area falls under high tectonically active zone, around 27% of the area falls under moderately active zone, while 60% of the area shows very low or negligible tectonic activity. The estimated results of the GL anomalies are compared with the existing double-difference tomograms, to understand the role of subsurface fault dynamics on the GL anomalies. Furthermore, the results of GLA are correlated with the existing results of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of the basin, in order to obtain the precise information regarding surface deformation and site-specific ground acceleration for accurate assessment of seismic hazard.

    • Multi-criteria approach using GIS for macro-level seismic hazard assessment of Kachchh Rift Basin, Gujarat, western India – First step towards earthquake disaster mitigation


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      The earthquakes have the most dominating societal and economic impact on the built environment. The earthquakes in an intraplate region are infrequent but often damaging. The uncontrolled urban growth in cities due to population explosion and migration makes it necessary to assess seismic hazards in an active region. It provides parameters for seismic safety and helps in disaster mitigation. The Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) of western India is a seismically active intraplate region where many damaging earthquakes have occurred in the past (Mw 7.8 in 1819, Mw 7.6 in 2001). The KRB hosts many economic corridors and ports. Though the region has been put in a category with highest seismic hazard, the entire region is not prone to high hazards. The primary objective of the study is to integrate major attributes that influence seismic hazard on a GIS platform and prepare a multi-criteria-based hazard map by multi-criteria decision process named as analytical hierarchy process (AHP) developed by Saaty. In this study, the information about some of the attributes like peak ground acceleration (PGA), geology and geomorphology, and tsunami hazard is taken from published literature, whereas shear wave velocity to 30 m depth (Vs)$_{30}$ and amplification factor were obtained through empirical relationships. The integration of these different attributes was performed, and weights were assigned depending on their contribution to the seismic hazard. The multi-criteria approach reveals that the southwestern part comprising of Kachchh mainland has a low hazard as compared to central and northern parts and almost 1 million people and around 0.18 million houses are exposed to moderate to high hazard. Large swaths of land are prone to liquefaction hazard. The corridor comprising of Bhuj, Bhachau and Rapar needs seismic microzonation. This macro level hazard map will be beneficial for the urban planners and government authorities to decide the areas, where seismic microzonation or site-specific studies are required that would help in mitigating earthquake disasters in the future.

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