• V S N Murty

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Hydrography and circulation in the northwestern Bay of Bengal during the retreat of southwest monsoon

      V S N Murty Y V B Sarma M T Babu D P Rao

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      The distribution of temperature and salinity in the upper 500 m of the northwestern Bay of Bengal, adjoining the east coast of India, during the retreat of southwest monsoon (September) of 1983 is presented. This study reveals coastal upwelling (limited to the upper 40 m) induced by the local winds. Waters of higher surface salinity near the coast characterize the upwelling. The freshwater influx near the head of the Bay diluted the surface salinity to as low as 26.0 × 10−3. The surface circulation was weak and led to a net transport of 2.0 × 106m3.s−1 directed towards northeast.

    • Thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper layers of the southern Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot (October–November 1998)

      V Ramesh Babu V S N Murty L V G Rao C V Prabhu V Tilvi

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      Hydrographic data collected on board ORV Sagar Kanya in the southern Bay of Bengal during the BOBMEX-Pilot programme (October–November 1998) have been used to describe the thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper 200 m water column of the study region. The presence of seasonal Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over the study area, typically characterized with enhanced cloudiness and flanked by the respective east/northeast winds on its northern part and west/southwest winds on its southern part, has led to net surface heat loss of about 55 W/m2. The sea surface dynamic topography relative to 500 db shows that the upper layer circulation is characterised by a cyclonic gyre encompassing the study area. The eastward flowing Indian Monsoon Current (IMC) between 5‡N and 7‡N in the south and its northward branching along 87‡E up to 13‡N appear to feed the cyclonic gyre. The Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents confirm the presence of the cyclonic gyre in the southern Bay of Bengal during the withdrawing phase of the southwest monsoon from the northern/central parts of the Bay of Bengal.

    • Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in the southern Bay of Bengal during October–November, 1998 (BOBMEX-Pilot)

      V S N Murty V Ramesh Babu L V G Rao Charuta V Prabhu V Tilvi

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      Time-series data on upper-ocean temperature, Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents and surface meteorological parameters have been obtained for the first time in the southern Bay of Bengal at 7‡N, 10‡N, and 13‡N locations along 87‡E during October–November, 1998 under BOBMEX-Pilot programme. These data have been analysed to examine the diurnal variability of upper oceanic heat budget and to estimate the eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper layer. Diurnal variation of near-surface temperature is typical at northern location (13‡N) with a range of 0.5‡C while the diurnal range of temperature is enhanced to 0.8‡C at the central location (10‡N) due to intense solar radiation (1050 W/m2), clear skies and low wind speeds. At the southern location (7‡N), the diurnal variation of temperature is atypical with the minimum temperature occurring at 2000 hrs instead of at early morning hours. In general, the diurnal curve of temperature penetrated up to 15 to 20 m with decreasing diurnal range with depth. The VM-ADCP measured horizontal currents in the upper ocean were predominantly easterly/northeasterly at southern location, north/northerly at central location and northwesterly at northern location, thus describing a large-scale cyclonic gyre with the northward meridional flow along 87‡E. The magnitudes of heat loss at the surface due to air-sea heat exchanges and in the upper 50 m layer due to vertical diffusion of heat are highest at the southern location where intense convective activity followed by overcast skies and synoptic disturbance prevailed in the lower atmosphere. This and the estimated higher value (0.0235 m2/s) of eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper ocean (0–50 m depth) suggest that 1-D processes controlled the upper layer heat budget at the southern location. On the other hand, during the fair weather conditions, at the central and northern locations, the upper layer gained heat energy, while the sea surface lost (gained) heat energy at northern (central) location. This and lower values of eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat (0.0045 and 0.0150 m2/s) and the northward intensification of horizontal currents at these locations suggest the greater role of horizontal heat advection over the 1-D processes in the upper ocean heat budget at these two locations.

    • Coccolithophores from the central Arabian Sea: Sediment trap results

      Lina P Mergulhao Rahul Mohan V S N Murty M V S Guptha D K Sinha

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      Sediment trap samples collected from a depth of 1018 m in the Central Arabian Sea Trap (CAST) at 14°28.2′N, 64°35.8′E were analyzed for temporal variation of coccolithophore fluxes from October 1993 to August 1994. Out of the twenty species of coccolithophores encountered,Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Emiliania huxleyi, Umbilicosphaera sibogae andUmbellosphaera irregularis were the most abundant. The total coccolithophore fluxes ranged from 28.5 × 106m-2d-1 to 50.3 × 106m-2d-1 showing seasonality with higher fluxes during the northeast (NE) monsoon and lower fluxes during the spring intermonsoon. The higher fluxes were attributed to the enhancement of primary production in the central Arabian Sea due to southward extent of nutrients from the northeast Arabian Sea by the prevailing surface currents. Similarly, the occurrences of relatively lower coccolithophore fluxes during the spring intermonsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon were attributed to the low nutrients in the warm, shallow surface mixed layer and downwelling to the south of Findlater Jet respectively in the central Arabian Sea. Some of the coccolithophore species such asE. huxleyi, G. oceanica, Calcidiscus leptoporus andUmbellosphaera tenuis showed signs of dissolution.

    • Observations of trace gases and aerosols over the Indian Ocean during the monsoon transition period

      T K Manual Ateef Khan Y Nazeer Ahammed R S Tanwar R S Parmar K S Zalpuri Prabhat K Gupta S L Jain Risal Singh A P Mitra S C Garg A Suryanarayana V S N Murty M Dileep Kumar Andrew J Shepherd

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      Characteristics of trace gases (O3, CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O) and aerosols (particle size of 2.5 micron) were studied over the Arabian Sea, equatorial Indian Ocean and southwest part of the Bay of Bengal during the monsoon transition period (October–November, 2004). Flow of pollutants is expected from south and southeast Asia during the monsoonal transition period due to the patterns of wind flow which are different from the monsoon period. This is the first detailed report on aerosols and trace gases during the sampled period as the earlier Bay of Bengal Experiment (BOBMEX), Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) and Indian Ocean Experiments (INDOEX) were during monsoon seasons. The significant observations during the transition period include: (i) low ozone concentration of the order of 5 ppbv around the equator, (ii) high concentrations of CO2, CH4 and N2O and (iii) variations in PM2.5 of 5–20μg/m3.

    • Marine boundary layer characteristics during a cyclonic storm over the Bay of Bengal

      Savita B Morwal S G Nagar V S N Murty P Seetaramayya

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      During the period 12–16 June 1996 a tropical cyclonic storm formed over the southwest Bay of Bengal and moved in a north-northeasterly direction. The thermodynamic characteristics of this system are investigated by utilizing the surface and upper air observations collected onboardORV Sagar Kanya over the Bay of Bengal region. The response of the cyclonic storm is clearly evident from the ship observations when the ship was within the distance of 600–800 km from the cyclonic storm. This study explores why (i) the whole atmosphere from surface to 500 hPa had become warm and moist during the cyclonic storm period as compared to before and after the formation of this system and (ii) the lower layer of the atmosphere had become stable during the formative stage of the cyclonic storm.

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