• V Ramaswamy

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Fluxes of material in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal — Sediment trap studies

      V Ramaswamy R R Nair

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      In order to investigate how monsoons influence biogeochemical fluxes in the ocean, twelve time-series sediment traps were deployed at six locations in the northern Indian Ocean. In this paper we present particle flux data collected during May 1986 to November 1991 and November 1987 to November 1992 in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal respectively. Particle fluxes were high during both the SW and NE monsoons in the Arabian Sea as well as in the Bay of Bengal. The mechanisms of particle production and transport, however, differ in both the regions.

      In the Arabian Sea, average annual fluxes are over 50gm-2y-1 in the western Arabian Sea and less than 27gm-2 y-1 in the central part. Biogenic matter is dominant at sites located near upwelling centers, and is less degraded during peak flux periods. High particle fluxes in the offshore areas of the Arabian Sea are caused by injection of nutrients into the euphotic zone due to wind-induced mixed layer deepening. In the Bay of Bengal, average annual fluxes are highest in the central Bay of Bengal (over

      50gm-2y-1) and are least in the southern part of the Bay (37gm-2y-1). Particle flux patterns coincide with freshwater discharge patterns of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system. Opal/carbonate and organic carbon/carbonate carbon ratios increase during the SW monsoon due to variations in salinity and productivity patterns in the surface waters as a result of increased freshwater and nutrient input from rivers.

      Comparison of S years data show that fluxes of biogenic and lithogenic particulate matter are higher in the Bay of Bengal even though the Arabian Sea is considered to be more productive. Our results indicate that in the northern Indian Ocean interannual variability in organic carbon flux is directly related to the strength and intensity of the SW monsoon while its transfer from the upper layers to the deep sea is partly controlled by input of lithogenic matter from adjacent continents.

    • A comparison of Globigerinoides ruber calcification between upwelling and nonupwelling regions in the Arabian Sea

      Sushant S Naik Shital P Godad P Divakar Naidu V Ramaswamy

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      Shell weights of planktonic foraminifera species Globigerinoides ruber in the size range of 300–355 μm were measured from sediment traps in the western and eastern Arabian Sea which represent upwelling and non-upwelling conditions respectively. In the Western Arabian Sea Trap (WAST), G. ruber flux ranged from 33.3 to 437.3#/m2/day and shell weights ranged from 6.7 to 14.2 𝜇g. Whereas, in the Eastern Arabian Sea Trap (EAST), flux ranged from 0.7 to 164.6#/m2/day and shell weights ranged from 10.4 to 14.8 𝜇g. Shell weights of G. ruber versus flux showed significant correlation at both the sites which reveals that shell calcification mainly depends on optimal growth conditions. Though the WAST and EAST location have distinct difference in pCO2 and sea surface temperature (SST), the shell weights of G. ruber are similar in these two regions which suggest that surface water pCO2 and SST do not show dominant influence on shell calcification on a seasonal timescale.

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