• V Balaram

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Geochemistry and magnetostratigraphy of deccan flows at Anjar, Kutch

      A D Shukla N Bhandari Sheela Kusumgar P N Shukla Z G Ghevariya K Gopalan V Balaram

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      Chemical analysis of nine Deccan flow basalts at Anjar, Kutch, western India, indicates that all, except the uppermost flow F-9, are alkaline. In their major and trace element composition, the alkali basalts resemble Ocean island basalts (OIB). Similarities of many diagnostic trace element ratios (e.g. Sm/Nd, Ba/Nb,Y/Nb and Zr/Nb) are similar to those found in the Réunion Island basalts. The uppermost basalt is tholeiitic and chemically resembles the least contaminated Deccan basalt (Ambenali type). The Anjar basalts have iridium concentration ranging between 2 and 178 pg/g. Some of these values are higher by about an order of magnitude compared to the Ir concentration in other basalts of the Deccan. A synthesis of chemical, palaeomagnetic and geochronologic data enables us to construct a chemical and magnetic stratigraphy for these flows.

      The three flows below the iridium enriched intertrappean bed (IT III) show normal magnetic polarity whereas all except one of the upper basalts show reversed magnetic polarity. The sequence seems to have started in polarity zones 31N and probably continued up to 28R or 27R. The results presented here support the view that Deccan volcanism in Kutch occurred on a time span of a few million years.

    • Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Neoproterozoic Mylliem granitoids, Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India

      Jyotisankar Ray Abhishek Saha Sohini Ganguly V Balaram A Keshav Krishna Sampa Hazra

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      The Mylliem granitoids of the Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India, represent one of the disharmonic Neoproterozoic igneous plutons, which are intrusive into low-grade Shillong Group of metasediments. Field studies indicate that the Mylliem granitoids cover an area of about 40 km2 and is characterized by development of variable attitude of primary foliations mostly marked along the margin of the pluton. Xenoliths of both Shillong Group of metasediments and mafic rocks have been found to occur within Mylliem granitoids. Structural study of the primary foliation is suggestive of funnel-shaped intrusion of Mylliem granitoids with no appreciable evidence of shearing. Petrographically, Mylliem granitoids are characterized by pink to white phenocrysts of prismatic microcline/perthite and lath-shaped plagioclase (An20$–$An29). Groundmass material is characterized by quartz, microcline, plagioclase, muscovite and biotite. Sphene and apatite occur as accessory minerals. Petrographically Mylliem granitoids have been discriminated as granite and granodiorite according to IUGS system of classification.

      Critical evaluation of geochemical data and variation trends of major oxides/trace elements suggests a significant role of fractional crystallization in the evolution of Mylliem pluton. Th/U ratios (3.22–6.77) indicate a relatively higher abundance of Th over U. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram characteristically shows an enriched LREE pattern and prominent negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.16–0.42) indicating the significant role of plagioclase fractionation from the parent magma. An overall strong REE fractionation pattern has been envisaged for Mylliem granitoids. The strong REE fractionation of the Mylliem granitoids is depicted by (Ce/Yb)$_N$ values, which show a range of 1.39 to 1.65. The aluminium saturation index (ASI) (ranging from 1.0 to 1.3), A/CNK ratios (ranging from 1.4 to 2.11) and A/NK ratios (ranging from 1.75 to 2.43) provide evidences for the peraluminous, S-type nature of the Mylliem granitoids. The peraluminous, S-type character is further supported by geochemical parameters such as Fe* and MALI (modified alkali lime index). Normative corundum < 1.0 wt.% is suggestive of the S-type nature of Mylliem granitoids. This is indicative of parent melt-extraction from metasedimentary source rocks by partial melting. Distinct geochemical parameters suggest a post-orogenic tectonic environment for the Mylliem granitoids. The peraluminous, calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic, post-orogenic Mylliem granitoids are geochemically correlatable with the post-orogenic Caledonian granitoids of Ireland and Britain.

    • Platinum group elements geochemistry of ultramafic and associated rocks from Pindar in Madawara Igneous Complex, Bundelkhand massif, central India

      V Balaram S P Singh M Satyanarayanan K V Anjaiah

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      Ultramafic rocks comprising dunite, harburgite, lehzolite, olivine webserite and websterite occur as intrusives in the form of small hillocks at around Pindar into the granite–gneisses of Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC). The peridotites are dominated by olivine cumulates where chromite and precious metal-bearing sulphides crystallized along with pyroxenes, subsequent to crystallization of olivine into the interstitial spaces of cumulates during cooling. Ultramafic rocks of Pindar are characterized by high MgO (up to 46.0 wt%) and FeO (up to 5.8 wt%); low SiO2 (40.8 to 48.0 wt%), TiO2 (0.2 to 0.5 wt%), Al2O3 (∼3.2 wt% av.), CaO(∼ 2.7 wt% av.) and Cu (11 to 73 𝜇 g/g). Cr and Ni values range from 2297 to 3150 𝜇 g/g and 2434 to 2767 𝜇 g/g, respectively. Distribution of Ir (up to 20 ng/g), Ru (27 to 90 ng/g), Rh (3 to 14 ng/g), Pt (18 to 72 ng/g), Pd (10 to 27 ng/g) and Au (22 to 57 ng/g) indicate platinum group element (PGE) and associated gold mineralization in these ultramafic rocks. A mineral phase representing sperrylite (PtAs2) was also identified within the sulphides in Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM–EDS) studies. The primitive mantle-normalized siderophile elements pattern shows platinum group element PGE (PPGE) enrichment (Rh, Pt, Pd). Discrimination diagrams of Pd/Ir vs. Ni/Cu, Pd/Pt vs. Ni/Cu, Cu/Pd vs. Pd, and Cu vs. Pd for the peridotites of Pindar attribute to affinity towards komatiite magma, derived from high degree of partial melting of prolonged depleted mantle, and the sulphur saturation condition incurred during the crystallization of chromite which was favourable for PGE mineralization.

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