Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Estimation of gas hydrate saturation using isotropic and anisotropic modelling in the Mahanadi basin

      Uma Shankar Ashok Kumar Pandey

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      A base of gas hydrate stability zone was established after coring and drilling under the National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition-01 in the Mahanadi basin. At two sites, logging-while-drilling log data, and, at one site, wireline log data, were acquired during the NGHP Expedition-01. Gas hydrate reservoirs modelling can be performed in two different ways. One way is isotropic (load bearing) and, on the other hand, anisotropic media (fracture filling with gas hydrate). Here, we have performed anisotropic modelling and estimated gas hydrate saturation using P-wave velocity, assuming an incidence angle of 75$^{\circ}$ represents the vertical fracture. The estimated gas hydrate saturation at sites NGHP-01-08 and NGHP-01-09, assuming anisotropic media, reduces the estimate by half compared to the saturation estimation by assuming isotropic media. The saturation at site NGHP-01-19 estimated from the isotropic and anisotropic P-wave velocity models are more or less similar except in the zone (175–210 m) just above the bottom simulating reflector depth, and this zone shows similar reduction in saturation as estimated at sites NGHP-01-08 and NGHP-01-09. Observations show that average gas hydrate saturations are relatively low (up to 5% of the pore space). The saturation of a gas hydrate estimated from an isotropic P-wave model varies from 5% to 20%. However, the saturation estimated from the anisotropic P-wave model shows a variation up to 10% of the pore spaces at three sites.

    • Evaluation of site-speciBc characteristics using microtremor measurements in the Gorakhpur city of Uttar Pradesh, India


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      The microtremor measurements are carried out in and around the Gorakhpur city (Uttar Pradesh), India, overlain by alluvium at about 150 sites to understand the local site conditions. Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) conBrms that the majority of sites have a predominant frequency of ${\sim}$0.45 Hz, which may suggest the prevalence of thick soft sediments in the area. Conspicuously, a number of multiple peaks in HVSR curves at few sites may reflect the presence of different interfaces with significant impedance contrasts. Maximum amplification is observed of 4.0–5.3 to the NW–SE of the city, whilst few sites in the city are found to be associated with different values of peak amplification factor that varied between 2.0 and 4.0. It is also observed that the ground vulnerability index ($K_g$) in Gorakhpur city has values higher than 10.0 at most of the sites. Assimilation of 1-D velocity model for the city clearly shows that low shear wave velocity (${\sim}$300 m/s) down to the depth of ${\sim}$35 m, suggesting thick piles of sediments that may correspond to Cuvial river system in the area, whilst the peak frequency of about 0.45 Hz may correspond to the Quaternary–Tertiary sediment boundary that may exist at deeper layers (${\sim}$1000 m). The inference of this study may be used as inputs for earthquake risk management by reducing the severity of earthquake shaking through design of earthquake risk resilient structures.

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