• Suryendu Dutta

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Chuaria circularis from the early Mesoproterozoic Suket Shale, Vindhyan Supergroup, India: Insights from light and electron microscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography

      Suryendu Dutta Michael Steiner Santanu Banerjee Bernd-Dietrich Erdtmann Silambuchelvan Jeevankumar Ulrich Mann

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      Chuaria circularis (Walcott 1899) from the Suket Shale of the Vindhyan Supergroup (central India) has been reinvestigated for its morphology and chemical composition using biostatistics, electron microscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Morphology and microscopic investigations provide little clues on the specific biological affinity ofChuaria as numerous preservational artifacts seem to be incorporated. On the contrary, the predominance of η aliphatic pyrolysates of presently studiedChuaria from India rather supports an algal affinity. Moreover, the reflectance ofC circularis can be used to obtain a comparative maturity parameter of the Precambrian sediments. The review of the age and geographical distribution ofC circularis constrains that this species cannot be considered as an index fossil for the Proterozoic time.

    • Chemical composition and palaeobotanical origin of Miocene resins from Kerala–Konkan Coast, western India

      Suryendu Dutta Monalisa Mallick Runcie Paul Mathews Ulrich Mann Paul F Greenwood Rakesh Saxena

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      The terpenoid composition of resins from the Miocene lignite horizons from the Kerala –Konkan Coast,western India was analyzed by Curie-point pyrolysis –gas chromatography –mass spectrometry (Cupy –GC –MS).The major pyrolysates were cadalene-based bicyclic sesquiterpenoids including some C30-C31 bicadinenes and bicadinanes typical of dammar resin from angiosperm plants of Dipterocarpaceae family.These plants are typically supported by tropical climates which the western Indian region was known to have experienced during early Tertiary period.The present study suggests that these palaeoclimatic conditions persisted until at least the Miocene epoch.These sesquiterpenoids which are commonly detected in many SE Asian crude oils may be utilised as useful biomarkers for petroleum exploration in the western Indian region.

    • Molecular fossils in Cretaceous condensate from western India

      Sharmila Bhattacharya Suryendu Dutta Ratul Dutta

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      The present study reports the biomarker distribution of condensate belonging to the early Cretaceous time frame using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The early Cretaceous palaeoenvironment was inscribed into these molecular fossils which reflected the source and conditions of deposition of the condensate. The saturate fraction of the condensate is characterized by normal alkanes ranging from 𝑛-C_{9} to 𝑛-C_{29} (CPI-1.13), cycloalkanes and C_{14} and C_{15} sesquiterpanes. The aromatic fraction comprises of naphthalene, phenanthrene, their methylated derivatives and cyclohexylbenzenes. Isohexylalkylnaphthalenes, a product of rearrangement process of terpenoids, is detected in the condensate. Several aromatic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids have been recorded. Dihydro-ar-curcumene, cadalene and ionene form the assemblage of sesquiterpenoids which are indicative of higher plant input. Aromatic diterpenoid fraction comprises of simonellite and retene. These compounds are also indicative of higher plants, particularly conifer source which had been a predominant flora during the Cretaceous time.

    • Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India

      Arka Rudra Suryendu Dutta Srinivasan V Raju

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      The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The resin extracts are composed of cadalene-based C_{15} sesquiterpenoids and diagenetically altered triterpenoids. The macromolecular composition was investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC–MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The major pyrolysis products are C_{15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, alkylated naphthalenes, benzenes and a series of C_{17}–C_{34} 𝑛-alkene-𝑛-alkane pairs. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the dominance of aliphatic components. The presence of cadalene-based sequiterpenoids confirms the resin to be Class II or dammar resin, derived from angiosperms of Dipterocarpaceae family. These sesquiterpenoids are often detected in many SE Asian fluvio-deltaic oils. Dipterocarpaceae are characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India.

    • Palynological and organic geochemical studies of the middle Eocene Siju Formation of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India


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      Detailed palynological and organic geochemical analysis of middle Eocene marlstones from the Siju Formation, Garo Hills of Meghalaya, were undertaken. All marl samples contained abundant organic wall dinoflagellate cysts and a few number of spores-pollen grains, foraminiferal linings and calcareous foraminifera. The palynological assemblage consists of 21 genera and 35 species with fungal remains. The occurrence of palynofloral assemblage indicates the prevalence of tropical–subtropical with humid climatic conditions. The deposition environment of the Siju Formation has been interpreted as the neritic setting. Organic matter is thermally immature representing type III–type IV kerogen with low total organic carbon (${\le}$0.72%). The biomarkers suggest microbial degradation of both reworked and terrestrial organic matter. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicate charred biomass transported from the land.


      $\bullet$ An integrated study of palynology and organic geochemistry was carried out in the middle Eocene of the Siju Formation of Garo Hills, Meghalaya.

      $\bullet$ Dinoflagellate cysts and spores, and pollen grains suggested that the Siju Formation has tropical-subtropical and neritic settings.

      $\bullet$ The biomarkers indicated microbial degradation of both reworked and terrestrial organic matter.

      $\bullet$ Rock-Eval pyrolysis and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis suggested the thermal maturity and type of kerogen

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