• Sugata Hazra

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Development of grabens and associated fault-drags: An experimental study

      Sugata Hazra

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      Experiments on extensional faulting were performed with semi-brittle talc-sand beds resting on a ductile clay base. The experiments show that the development of graben in the talc-sand beds is controlled by the deformation in the ductile basement. Graben-like structures form only when there is a non-uniform stretching in the basement. Uniform extension at the basement level fails to produce any such structures. Grabens initiate as large synclinal structures (sag). The sag is generated either by a downward flexing of the talc-sand bed on a ductile basement or by non ****-uniform thinning of beds. Listric master faults bounding the grabens intersect the basement at high angles. The master faults that initiate as curved shear planes rotate further with continued extension. At the initial stage, the graben structures are associated with normal drags, and with progressive deformation, drag patterns change from normal to a reverse one.

    • High-resolution satellite image segmentation using Hölder exponents

      Debasish Chakraborty Gautam Kumar Sen Sugata Hazra

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      Texture in high-resolution satellite images requires substantial amendment in the conventional segmentation algorithms. A measure is proposed to compute the Hölder exponent (HE) to assess the roughness or smoothness around each pixel of the image. The localized singularity information is incorporated in computing the HE. An optimum window size is evaluated so that HE reacts to localized singularity. A two-step iterative procedure for clustering the transformed HE image is adapted to identify the range of HE, densely occupied in the kernel and to partition Hölder exponents into a cluster that matches with the range. Hölder exponent values (noise or not associated with the other cluster) are clubbed to a nearest possible cluster using the local maximum likelihood analysis.

    • Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India

      Abhra Chanda Anirban Akhand Sudip Manna Sachinandan Dutta Sugata Hazra Indrani Das V K Dadhwal

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      The above canopy carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes were measured by micrometeorological gradient technique at three distant stations, within the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem of Sundarban (Indian part), between April 2011 and March 2012. Quadrat analysis revealed that all the three study sites are characterized by a strong heterogeneity in the mangrove vegetation cover. At day time the forest was a sink for CO2, but its magnitude varied significantly from −0.39 to −1.33 mg m−2 s−1. The station named Jharkhali showed maximum annual fluxes followed by Henry Island and Bonnie Camp. Day time fluxes were higher during March and October, while in August and January the magnitudes were comparatively lower. The seasonal variation followed the same trend in all the sites. The spatial variation of CO2 flux above the canopy was mainly explained by the canopy density and photosynthetic efficiency of the mangrove species. The CO2 sink strength of the mangrove cover in different stations varied in the same way with the CO2 uptake potential of the species diversity in the respective sites. The relationship between the magnitude of day time CO2 uptake by the canopy and photosynthetic photon flux was defined by a non-linear exponential curve ($R^2$ ranging from 0.51 to 0.60). Water vapour fluxes varied between 1.4 and 69.5 mg m−2 s−1. There were significant differences in magnitude between day and night time water vapour fluxes, but no spatial variation was observed.

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