Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 112 Issue 2 June 2003 pp 165-184
The skill and efficiency of a numerical model mostly varies with the quality of initial values, accuracy on parameterization of physical processes and horizontal and vertical resolution of the model. Commonly used low-resolution reanalyses are hardly able to capture the prominent features associated with organized convective processes in a monsoon depression. The objective is to prepare improved high-resolution analysis by the use of MM5 modelling system developed by the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR). It requires the objective comparison of high and low-resolution analysis datasets in assessing the specific convective features of a monsoon depression. For this purpose, reanalysis datasets of NCAR/NCEP (National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction) at a horizontal resolution of 2.5‡ (latitude/longitude) have been used as first guess in the objective analysis scheme. The additional asynoptic datasets obtained during BOBMEX-99 are utilized within the assimilation process. Cloud Motion Wind (CMW) data of METEOSAT satellite and SSM/I surface wind data are included for the improvement of derived analysis. The multiquadric (MQD) interpolation technique is selected and applied for meteorological objective analysis at a horizontal resolution of 30 km. After a successful inclusion of additional data, the resulting reanalysis is able to produce the structure of convective organization as well as prominent synoptic features associated with monsoon depression. Comparison and error verifications have been done with the help of available upper-air station data. The objective verification reveals the efficiency of the analysis scheme.
Volume 115 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 299-313
Intense rainfall often leads to floods and landslides in the Himalayan region even with rainfall amounts that are considered comparatively moderate over the plains; for example, ‘cloudbursts’, which are devastating convective phenomena producing sudden high-intensity rainfall (∼10 cm per hour) over a small area. Early prediction and warning of such severe local weather systems is crucial to mitigate societal impact arising from the accompanying flash floods. We examine a cloudburst event in the Himalayan region at Shillagarh village in the early hours of 16 July 2003. The storm lasted for less than half an hour, followed by flash floods that affected hundreds of people. We examine the fidelity of MM5 configured with multiple-nested domains (81, 27, 9 and 3 km grid-resolution) for predicting a cloudburst event with attention to horizontal resolution and the cloud microphysics parameterization. The MM5 model predicts the rainfall amount 24 hours in advance. However, the location of the cloudburst is displaced by tens of kilometers
Volume 115 Issue 3 June 2006 pp 315-332
An operational atmospheric dispersion prediction system is implemented on a cluster supercomputer for Online Emergency Response at the Kalpakkam nuclear site. This numerical system constitutes a parallel version of a nested grid meso-scale meteorological model MM5 coupled to a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The system provides 48-hour forecast of the local weather and radioactive plume dispersion due to hypothetical airborne releases in a range of 100 km around the site. The parallel code was implemented on different cluster configurations like distributed and shared memory systems. A 16-node dual Xeon distributed memory gigabit ethernet cluster has been found sufficient for operational applications. The runtime of a triple nested domain MM5 is about 4 h for a 24 h forecast. The system had been operated continuously for a few months and results were ported on the IMSc home page.
Initial and periodic boundary condition data for MM5 are provided by NCMRWF, New Delhi. An alternative source is found to be NCEP, USA. These two sources provide the input data to the operational models at different spatial and temporal resolutions using different assimilation methods. A comparative study on the results of forecast is presented using these two data sources for present operational use. Improvement is noticed in rainfall forecasts that used NCEP data, probably because of its high spatial and temporal resolution
Volume 116 Issue 4 August 2007 pp 275-304
Obtaining an accurate initial state is recognized as one of the biggest challenges in accurate model prediction of convective events. This work is the first attempt in utilizing the India Meteorological Department (IMD) Doppler radar data in a numerical model for the prediction of mesoscale convective complexes around Chennai and Kolkata. Three strong convective events both over Chennai and Kolkata have been considered for the present study. The simulation experiments have been carried out using fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) version 3.5.6. The variational data assimilation approach is one of the most promising tools available for directly assimilating the mesoscale observations in order to improve the initial state. The horizontal wind derived from the DWR has been used alongwith other conventional and non-conventional data in the assimilation system. The preliminary results from the three dimensional variational (3DVAR) experiments are encouraging. The simulated rainfall has also been compared with that derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The encouraging result from this study can be the basis for further investigation of the direct assimilation of radar reflectivity data in 3DVAR system. The present study indicates that Doppler radar data assimilation improves the initial field and enhances the Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) skill.
Volume 117 Issue 5 October 2008 pp 603-620
Performance of four mesoscale models namely,the MM5,ETA,RSM and WRF,run at NCMRWF for short range weather forecasting has been examined during monsoon-2006.Evaluation is carried out based upon comparisons between observations and day-1 and day-3 forecasts of wind,temperature,speciﬁc humidity,geopotential height,rainfall,systematic errors,root mean square errors and speciﬁc events like the monsoon depressions.
It is very difficult to address the question of which model performs best over the Indian region? An honest answer is ‘none ’.Perhaps an ensemble approach would be the best.However, if we must make a ﬁnal verdict,it can be stated that in general,(i)the WRF is able to produce best All India rainfall prediction compared to observations in the day-1 forecast and,the MM5 is able to produce best All India rainfall forecasts in day-3,but ETA and RSM are able to depict the best distribution of rainfall maxima along the west coast of India,(ii)the MM5 is able to produce least RMSE of wind and geopotential ﬁelds at most of the time,and (iii)the RSM is able to produce least errors in the day-1 forecasts of the tracks,while the ETA model produces least errors in the day-3 forecasts.
Volume 118 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 413-440
The change in the type of vegetation fraction can induce major changes in the local effects such as local evaporation,surface radiation,etc.,that in turn induces changes in the model simulated outputs.The present study deals with the effects of vegetation in climate modeling over the Indian region using the MM5 mesoscale model.The main objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of vegetation dataset derived from SPOT satellite by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization)
The study reveals mixed results on the impact of vegetation datasets generated by ISRO and USGS on the simulations of the monsoon.Results indicate that the ISRO data has a positive impact on the simulations of the monsoon over northeastern India and along the western coast.The MM5- USGS has greater tendency of overestimation of rainfall.It has higher standard deviation indicating that it induces a dispersive effect on the rainfall simulation.Among the ﬁve years of study,it is seen that the RMSE of July and JJAS (June –July –August –September)for All India Rainfall is mostly lower for MM5-ISRO.Also,the bias of July and JJAS rainfall is mostly closer to unity for MM5-ISRO.The wind ﬁelds at 850 hPa and 200 hPa are also better simulated by MM5 using ISRO vegetation.The synoptic features like Somali jet and Tibetan anticyclone are simulated closer to the veri ﬁcation analysis by ISRO vegetation.The 2 m air temperature is also better simulated by ISRO vegetation over the northeastern India,showing greater spatial variability over the region. However,the JJAS total rainfall over north India and Deccan coast is better simulated using the USGS vegetation.Sensible heat ﬂux over north-west India is also better simulated by MM5-USGS.
Volume 126 Issue 4 June 2017 Article ID 0057
The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model is used to simulate Very Severe Cyclonic Storms (VSCS) Hudhud (7–13 October, 2014), Phailin (8–14 October, 2013) and Lehar (24–29 November, 2013) to investigate the sensitivity to microphysical schemes on the skill of forecasting track and intensity of the tropical cyclones for high-resolution (9 and 3 km) 120-hr model integration. For cloud resolving grid scale (<5 km) cloud microphysics plays an important role. The performance of the Goddard, Thompson, LIN and NSSL schemes are evaluated and compared with observations and a CONTROL forecast. This study is aimed to investigate the sensitivity to microphysics on the track and intensity with explicitly resolved convection scheme. It shows that the Goddard one-moment bulk liquid-ice microphysical scheme provided the highest skill on the track whereas for intensity both Thompson and Goddard microphysical schemes perform better. The Thompson scheme indicates the highest skill in intensity at 48, 96 and 120 hr, whereas at 24 and 72 hr, the Goddard scheme provides the highest skill in intensity. It is known that higher resolution domain produces better intensity and structure of the cyclones and it is desirable to resolve the convection with sufficiently high resolution and with the use of explicit cloud physics. This study suggests that the Goddard cumulus ensemble microphysical scheme is suitable for high resolution ARW simulation for TC’s track and intensity over the BoB. Although the present study is based on only three cyclones, it could be useful for planning real-time predictions using ARW modelling system.