• Shard Chander

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Variability in the ice sheet elevations over Antarctica derived from repetitive SARAL/AltiKa radar altimeter data (2013–2016)

      Maya Raghunath Suryawanshi Shard Chander Sandip R Oza Bahuguna I M

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      Changes in surface elevations of polar ice sheets are the result of changes in ice dynamics and surface mass balance. Here, we present intra- and inter-annual elevation changes over the Antarctic ice sheet using the AltiKa radar altimeter’s 40 Hz geophysical data record products for the period 2013–2016. Slope corrections were applied on the elevations using a digital elevation model (DEM) available from NASA’s ice, cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat). Comparison of elevations from AltiKa and ICESat’s DEM yielded correlation, bias and root-mean-square-deviation values of the order of 0.99, −2.88 and 23.04 m, respectively, indicating the first-level accuracy of a former dataset. Further comparison of Airborne Topographic Mapper dataset with AltiKa derived elevation yielded 0.4 m root-mean-square-deviation over a part of Vostok subglacial lake. The intra-annual change indicates that for GY2 (glaciological year), GY3 and GY4, number of negative elevation change points exceeded the number of positive elevation change points during the Antarctic austral summer period (December–February). Inter-annual elevation changes were negative during 2013–2014 and positive during 2014–2015 over east Antarctica, whereas in west Antarctica negative elevation changes were observed for both periods.

    • Volume loss of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by SARAL/AltiKa repeat passes radar altimetry

      Maya Raghunath Suryawanshi Shard Chander Sandip R Oza Bahuguna I M

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      The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is one of the drivers of global sea level rise and plays a crucial role in understanding the global climate changes. Here, we have estimated and analysed the decadal (between 2013–2016 and 2003–2005) and annual (2014–2015, 2015–2016) volume discharge of ice from the entire GrIS. The 40 Hz Geophysical Data Record product of the unique Ka band (AltiKa) radar altimeter were utilised to derive the elevation, elevation changes and volume changes over the GrIS. To test the first-level accuracy of the result, AltiKa and NASA’s ice, cloud and land elevation satellite digital elevation model (ICESat DEM)-derived elevation were compared, which yielded a correlation value of 0.95. Thereafter, decadal volume changes obtained over the entire GrIS, from the differencing of the AltiKa and ICESat DEM elevation revealed a decreasing rate of 247 km$^{3}$/year. Moreover, basin-wise analysis indicated the maximum decrease in elevation of basin located in the north and north-west region of GrIS. Annual changes obtained by differencing the AltiKa cycle of the same month (so that the surface condition will remain same) between the two consecutive years, specifically during 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 over the entire GrIS contributed volume loss of 187 and 210 km$^{3}$, respectively, indicating an enhanced decrease for a later period.

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