• Shakeel Ahmed

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Implications of Kali–Hindon inter-stream aquifer water balance for groundwater management in western Uttar Pradesh

      Rashid Umar M Muqtada A Khan Izrar Ahmed Shakeel Ahmed

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      The Kali–Hindon inter-stream region extends over an area of 395 km2 within the Ganga–Yamuna interfluve. It is a fertile tract for sugarcane cultivation. Groundwater is a primary resource for irrigation and industrial purposes. In recent years, over-exploitation has resulted in an adverse impact on the groundwater regime. In this study, an attempt has been made to calculate a water balance for the Kali–Hindon inter-stream region. Various inflows and outflows to and from the aquifer have been calculated. The recharge due to rainfall and other recharge parameters such as horizontal inflow, irrigation return flow and canal seepage were also evaluated. Groundwater withdrawals, evaporation from the water table, discharge from the aquifer to rivers and horizontal subsurface outflows were also estimated. The results show that total recharge into the system is 148.72million cubic metres (Mcum), whereas the total discharge is 161.06 Mcum, leaving a deficit balance of −12.34Mcum. Similarly, the groundwater balance was evaluated for the successive four years. The result shows that the groundwater balance is highly sensitive to variation in rainfall followed by draft through pumpage. The depths to water level are shallow in the canal-irrigated northern part of the basin and deeper in the southern part. The pre-monsoon and post-monsoon water levels range from 4.6 to 17.7m below ground level (bgl) and from 3.5 to 16.5m bgl respectively. It is concluded that the groundwater may be pumped in the canal-irrigated northern part, while withdrawals may be restricted to the southern portion of the basin, where intense abstraction has led to rapidly falling water table levels.

    • Assessing variability of water quality in a groundwater-fed perennial lake of Kashmir Himalayas using linear geostatics

      S Sarah Gh Jeelani Shakeel Ahmed

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      This paper presents a study on Manasbal lake, which is one of the high altitude lakes in the KashmirValley, India. Eighteen water samples were analysed for major ions and trace elements to assess the variability of water quality of the lake for various purposes. Geostatistics, the theory of regionalized variables, was then used to enhance the dataset and estimate some missing spatial values. Resultsindicated that the concentration of major ions in the water samples in winter was higher than in summer. The scatter diagrams suggested the dominance of alkaline earths over the alkali elements. Three types of water were identified in the lake that are referred to as Ca–HCO3, Mg–HCO3 and hybrid types. The lake water was found to be controlled by rock–water interaction with carbonate lithology as a dominant source of the solutes. The major (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NO3 and HCO$^{−}_{3}$, CO3 and Cl) and trace elements of the lake water were within the World Health Organization standards, therefore the lake water was considered chemically safe for drinking purposes. Although NO3 concentration (ranging from 1.72 to 2 mg/L), is within the permissible limit and not very alarming, the gradually increasing trend is not acceptable. It is however, important to guard its spatio-temporal variability as the water is used for domestic as well as agricultural purposes. This study is significant as hydrogeological information on such high altitude lakes in India is scanty.

    • Deciphering heavy metal contamination zones in soils of a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS

      D Purushotham Mahjoor Ahmad Lone Mehnaz Rashid A Narsing Rao Shakeel Ahmed

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      Soil contamination by heavy metals has been a major concern for last few decades due to increase in urbanization and industrialization. The main objective of this research was to identify the heavy metal contaminated zones in the study area. Twenty five soil samples collected throughout the agriculture, residential and industrial areas were analysed by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) for trace metals and major oxides. These metals can affect the quality of soil and infiltrate through the soil, thereby causing groundwater pollution. Based on the chemical analysis of major oxides (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, and P2O5) and their distribution; it is observed that these soils are predominantly siliceous type with slight enrichment of alumina component in the study area. Correlation matrix (CM) and factor analysis (FA) is employed to the heavy metal variables, viz., Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Y, Zn and Zr of the soil to determine the dominant factors contributing to the soil contamination in the area. In the analysis, five factors emerged as significant contributors to the soil quality. The total contribution of these five factors is about 90%. The contribution of the first factor is about 45% and has significant positive loadings of Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn. The contribution of second factor is 22% and has significant positive loadings of Rb, Sr and Y. The contribution of third, fourth and fifth factors is 10, 8 and 5% and show positive loadings for lead, molybdenum and barium respectively to the soil contamination. The spatial variation maps deciphering different zones of heavy metal concentration in the soil were generated in a GIS (geographic information system) based environment using ArcGIS 9.3.1. The results reveal that heavy metal contamination in the area is mainly due to anthropogenic activities.

    • Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline rocks

      Subash Chandra E Nagaiah D V Reddy V Ananda Rao Shakeel Ahmed

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      Characterization of the shear zone with pole–pole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was carried out to explore deep groundwater potential zone in a water scarce granitic area. As existing field conditions does not always allow to plant the remote electrodes at sufficiently far of distance, the effect of insufficient distance of remote electrodes on apparent resistivity measurement was studied and shown that the transverse pole–pole array affects less compared to the collinear pole–pole array. Correction factor have been computed for transverse pole–pole array for various positions of the remote electrodes. The above results helped in exploring deep aquifer site, where a 270 m deep well was drilled. Temporal hydro-chemical samples collected during the pumping indicated the hydraulic connectivity between the demarcated groundwater potential fractures. Incorporating all the information derived from different investigations, a subsurface model was synthetically simulated and generated 2D electrical resistivity response for different arrays and compared with the field responses to further validate the geoelectrical response of deep aquifer set-up associated with lineament.

    • Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones for drinking water in Niamey city, Niger, Africa

      Joy Choudhury K Lohith Kumar E Nagaiah S Sonkamble Shakeel Ahmed Venay Kumar

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      Niger is a landlocked African country and the only source of surface water is the Niger River which flows in the western part of Niger and only few villages near to the river gets benefited from it, leaving most of the areas dependent on groundwater solely. The groundwater resources in Niger are mainly used for drinking, livestock and domestic needs. It can be observed that the water exploitation is minimal there due to several factors like undeveloped areas, less population, limited wells, rain-fed irrigation, etc. The delineation of potential aquifer zones is an important aspect for groundwater prospecting. Hence, the direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied geophysical techniques for groundwater prospecting that was used in the capital city, Niamey of Niger. Twelve VES surveys, each of AB spacing 400 m were carried out in lateritic and granitic rock formations with a view to study the layer response and to delineate the potential zones. Potential aquifer zones were at shallow depth ranging from 10 to 25 m for the drilled borehole depth of 80–85 m in every village. Analysis of the result showed a good correlation between the acquired data and the lithologs.

    • Spatial estimation of groundwater storage from a 2D specific yield in the crystalline aquifer of the Maheshwaram watershed

      Syed Adil Mizan Shakeel Ahmed Adrien Selles

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      Crystalline aquifers are present in most parts of southern India with limited resources of groundwater. The groundwater storage map in the Maheshwaram watershed has been estimated from the product of specific yield (Sy) and saturate aquifer thickness as a system being an unconfined weathered–fractured combined aquifer. Land-use data has been used for the estimation of groundwater abstraction at a spatial scale. Storage and scarcity mapping demonstrate that the watershed is clearly vulnerable to drought in some areas because of significant pumping. Therefore, the result shows that on average, the availability of groundwater storage corresponds to 1.5 yr of the present groundwater abstraction rate with successive low monsoons (i.e., insignificant recharge). Additionally, 13% of the area shows no storage at present, 28% of the area has less than 1 yr, 40% area has less than 2 yr and 12% area has less than 3% of storage. Very few cells can sustain for more than 3 yr. Additionally, the Sy of the aquifer ranges from 0.2% to 5% with a mean value of 1.8%. A geo-statistical technique has been applied for the estimation of Sy at unknown cells where either the cell was dry or no pumping occurred. This estimated two-dimensional Sy value can also be used in classical groundwater numerical modelling for a better understanding of groundwater resource management.

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