• Sankha Das

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Evidences of inclined transpression at the contact between Vinjamuru group and Udayagiri group of Nellore Schist Belt, Andhra Pradesh, India

      Sankha Das Devasheesh Shukla S K Mitra

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      The Nellore Schist Belt (NSB) is a curvilinear Archaean schist belt, approximately 350 km long and 8–50 km wide. The Nellore Schist Belt is considered to be Neoarchean in age and stratigraphically NSB is classified as the western Udayagiri group (dominated by metasediments) and underlying eastern Vinjamuru group (dominated by metabasalts). There is a long controversy regarding the contact relationship between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups. Earlier researchers regarded the contact between two groups as tectonic on the basis of metamorphism. A shear zone and a possible thrust contact between the two groups have also been reported. On the basis of present study, an NNW–SSE trending, westerly dipping inclined transpressional zone is found at the contact between Udayagiri and Vinjamuru groups in the central western part of the NSB. Kinematic analysis of both the hanging wall and foot wall of the westerly dipping thrust zone shows presence of strong S1 schistosity, shear bands and S-C fabric in both strike and dip section along with east-verging overturned fold, westerly dipping inverted beds, suggesting partitioning of non-coaxial deformation in strike-slip and dip-slip component along with a pure shear component. Strike-slip is more prominent in the northern part of the contact than the southern part. The presence of steep to moderate northerly plunging non-orthogonal stretching/mineral elongation lineation all along the contact and clockwise shift of plot of the same in stereo net from its orthogonal position and presence of other kinematic indicators in plan suggests a right lateral strike-slip component. As a whole, it is suggested that Udayagiri group is thrusted over Vinjamuru group along a westerly dipping thrust plane with a right lateral strike-slip motion and simultaneous E–W contraction.

    • Petrology and geochemistry of mafic dyke and sills in Cumbum Formation, of the Proterozoic Nallamalai fold belt, Rajampet area, Andhra Pradesh, India

      Sankha Das Munmun Chakraborty

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      Intensely deformed Proterozoic Nallamalai fold belt (NFB) occupies the eastern part of undeformed, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin and is separated from Cuddapah basin by easterly dipping Rudravaram thrust line. Igneous activity in NFB is represented by intrusive syenite and lamproite dykes. This study brings out the petrological and geochemical character of unreported intrusive dolerite dykes and sills within the Cumbum Formation of NFB. The dykes are undeformed, whereas the sills suffered D1 phase of deformation, although both are petrologically and geochemically similar. The rocks are highly fractionated sub-alkaline tholeiite, consist mainly of clino-pyroxene and plagioclase. Chondrite-normalised rare earth element (REE) plot shows enriched light rare earth element (LREE) and flat heavy rare earth element (HREE). A primitive mantle-normalised multi-element spider diagram shows troughs in Nb, Ta, Ti and Zr indicating subduction zone character. Tectonic discrimination plots indicate both within-plate and subduction zone environment of formation. Geochemical modelling also indicates enriched spinel peridotite as a probable source for dykes and sills. We suggest that the lithospheric mantle beneath NFB got enriched by subduction-derived fluid around 1.6 Ga, and in later stage, these dykes and sills were generated by extension of the enriched lithosphere at different phases in turn inheriting the subduction zone geochemical characters.

    • Evidence of Archaean metamorphism from the Yerrabali schist belt of Eastern Dharwar craton from EPMA dating of monazite


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      The Dharwar craton is divided in to the Western and Eastern Dharwar craton (WDC and EDC) by the N–S trending Chitradurga Shear zone. The EDC mainly consists of late Archean granites interspersed with N–S trending linear schist belts. The Yerrabali Schst belt (YSB) is located at the north-eastern corner of the EDC, near the Karimnagar granulite belt. The YSB is metamorphosed in middle-upper amphibolite facies and consists of Banded Magnetite Quartzite (BMQ), ferruginous quartzite, ultramafics, quartz–cordierite–gedrite $\pm$ garnet bearing quartzite, dolomite, amphibolite, deformed metapyroxenite, tremolite schist, sillimanite–garnet–cordierite schist, and dolerite dykes. We have dated monazites in the sillimanite–garnet–cordierite schist, exposed at the SW part of the YSB by EPMA chemical method. So far no dates are available from the YSB. The monazite chemical ages with three distinct populations, viz., $2658 \pm 42$, $2817 \pm 19$ and $3097 \pm 34 \rm{Ma}$, probably correspond to three distinct metamorphic phases. The peak metamorphism at around 2800 Ma corresponds with the garnet and cordierite growth. A temperature of $673^{0}\rm{C}$ and a pressure of 4.7 kb have been estimated for peak metamorphism.

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