• S BALAKRISHNAN

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd study of granite–charnockite association in the Pudukkottai region and the link between metamorphism and magmatism in the Madurai Block

      M Chandra Sekaran Rajneesh Bhutani S Balakrishnan

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      Pudukkottai region in the northeastern part of the Madurai Block exposes the garnetiferous pink granite that intruded the biotite gneiss. Charnockite patches are associated with both the rock types. Rb–Sr biotite and Sm–Nd whole-rock isochron ages indicate a regional uplift and cooling at ∼550 Ma. The initialNd isotope ratios (ε^t_{Nd} = −20 to −22) and Nd depleted-mantle model ages (T_{DM} = 2.25 to 2.79 Ga) indicate a common crustal source for the pink-granite and associated charnockite, while the biotite gneiss and the charnockite within it represent an older crustal source (ε^t_{Nd} = −29 and T_{DM} =>3.2 Ga). TheRb–Sr whole-rock data and initial Sr–Nd isotope ratios also help demonstrate the partial but systematic equilibration of Sr isotope and Rb/Sr ratios during metamorphic mineral-reactions resulting in an ‘apparent whole-rock isochron’. The available geochronological results from the Madurai Block indicate four major periods of magmatism and metamorphism: Neoarchaean–Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, mid-Neoproterozoic and late-Neoproterozoic. We suggest that the high-grade and ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preceded by magmatism which ‘prepared’ the residual crust to sustain the high P–T conditions. There also appears to be cyclicity in the tectono-magmatic events and an evolutionary model for the Madurai Block should account for the cyclicity in the preserved records.

    • Fluid inclusion, geochemical, Rb–Sr and Sm–Nd isotope studies on tungsten mineralized Degana and Balda granites of the Aravalli craton, NW India

      Sundarrajan Vijay Anand M S Pandian S Balakrishnan R Sivasubramaniam

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      Granitic plutons occurring within and to the west of the Delhi Fold Belt in the Aravalli craton, northwestern India are the result of widespread felsic magmatism during Neoproterozoic, some of which are associated with greisen and skarn tungsten deposits. In this paper, we present the result of our study on fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology of two such tungsten mineralized granite plutons at Degana and Balda, and interpret the nature of ore fluid, and petrogenesis and age of these mineralized granites. Fluid inclusion study reveals coexistence of moderate and hyper-saline aqueous fluid inclusions along with aqueous-carbonic inclusions, suggesting their origin due to liquid immiscibilityduring fluid–rock interaction. Geochemically, the granites are peraluminous, Rb enriched, Sr and Ba depleted and highly differentiated. The Rb–Sr isotopic systematics yielded 795±11 Ma for Balda granite and 827 ± 8 Ma for Degana granite. We show that major phase of widespread granitoid magmatismand mineralization during the Neoproterozoic (840–790 Ma) in NW India is coeval with breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent and infer a causal relationship between them.

    • Geochemistry and petrogenesis of acidic volcanics from Betul–Chhindwara Belt, Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), central India

      IBRAHIM YOUSUF D V SUBBA RAO S BALAKRISHNAN TALAT AHMAD

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      Betul–Chhindwara belt is part of Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) that includes Proterozoic basalt, rhyolite, quartzite, mafic–ultramafic rocks, volcano sediments and banded iron formation (BIF). Studied rhyolites and leuco-micro granites are deformed due to shearing and includes quartz, K-feldspar (microcline), muscovite, biotite and epidote. In some samples, feldspar has been sericitized due to interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The major element geochemistry of volcanic rocks clearly indicates acidic nature and falls in the rhyolite field. Rhyolites show difference in the enrichment of REEs and major element composition which help us divide them into two groups and also indicate heterogenous source. The rhyolites show very strong negative Eu anomaly, which indicates fractionation of feldspar. Positive anomalies of U–Th–Zr for the rhyolites indicate crustal involvement. The $\varepsilon\rm{Ndt (t=1500)}$ for the Group I rhyolites vary from –1.42 to –0.19 and for the Group II rhyolites vary from –5.81 to +0.14 and DM model ages for Group I rhyolites vary from 2284 to 2464 Ma and for Group II vary from 2174 to 2863 Ma. It is suggested that contemporary mafic magma of the Betul–Chhindwara belt while ascending from mantle sources interacted with the continental crust at different levels, supplying heat and fluids which reduced the melting points of the crustal source rocks, producing felsic melt of varying compositions. Tectonic discriminant diagrams and geochemical data indicate subduction zone tectonic environment for the genesis of the Betul–Chhindwara acidic volcanism. The acidic volcanics of Betul–Chindwara, Sakoli and the Bijli rhyolites from the adjoining areas display similarity in terms of the total alkali vs. silica diagram and many of the major and trace elements, including rare earth element characteristics. Compared to Betul Rhyolite, Sakoli Rhyolites are derived from less enriched source with less involvement of crust and/or the latter represents high degree of partial melting of similar source. They are considered contemporaneous to Betul Rhyolite based on geochronological data. Contrastingly, Bijli Rhyolite show highly fractionated patterns with high LREE enrichment indicating considerable crustal involvement which is very obvious for within plate magmatism, assigned for the Bijli rhyolites.

    • Geochemistry of ultramafic–mafic rocks of Mesoarchean Sargur Group, western Dharwar craton, India: Implications for their petrogenesis and tectonic setting

      KIRANMALA PATRA R ANAND S BALAKRISHNAN JITENDRA K DASH

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      The Nuggihalli and Holenarsipur greenstone belts of the western Dharwar craton expose ultramafic–mafic rocks of the Mesoarchean. The rocks in these belts are geochemically considered as komatiites and komatiitic basalts with minor occurrences of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basalts. The dominant ultramaficrocks of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt are layered and indicate fractionation processes at relatively shallower crustal levels. The Al-undepleted and Al-depleted signatures obtained could be attributed to magmatic differentiation processes and might be due to fractional crystallization of minerals such as hornblende and plagioclase, in addition to cumulus olivine and pyroxene. The chemical heterogeneity in the rocks of these greenstone belts might have therefore developed during the intrusion of the parental melts and their differentiation into a layered igneous complex. The differences in the lithological characteristics of the Holenarsipur and Nuggihalli greenstone belts can be explained by their different crustal levels of exposure. Presence of spinifex-textured komatiites need not necessarily imply that the sources have to be ultramafic and therefore of a deeper origin. This study indicates that the parental melts for unambiguous layered intrusive ultramafic–mafic complexes could be high-Mg basalts originating from relatively shallower levels. The probable geodynamic setting for the emplacement of the rocks of the two greenstone belts could be in a plume-modified mid-ocean ridge that was too thick and buoyant to be subducted, and the decompression-melted magma chamber developed igneous layering as the magma stalled in the lithosphere.

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