Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • A local magnitude scale $M_{L}$ for the Saurashtra horst: An active intraplate region, Gujarat, India


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      The calibration of local magnitude scale to local tectonics is essential for seismic hazard assessment and quantifying the seismicity in active regions. In the present study, we have developed a local magnitude scale $M_{L}$, for the Saurashtra region, which is a horst, located in the western continental margin of India. The local magnitude scale is developed using 1968 amplitude measurements from horizontal component recordings of 319 earthquakes, obtained from sites in the Saurashtra region, with hypocentral distances ranging from 3 to 298 km. All the 1968 amplitude measurements were inverted simultaneously to determine attenuation curve, magnitudes and station corrections for the studied region. The resultant distance correction term for the Saurashtra is $-log(A_{0}) = 1.31 log(r/100) + 0.0002 (r - 100) + 3$ for 100 km normalization, where $A_{0}$ is the distance correction and $r$ is the hypocentral distance. The distance correction term ($-log A_{0}$) suggests that the attenuation in the Saurashtra region is lower as compared to neighbouring Kachchh region. The station corrections obtained in the present study varies from $-0.31$ to $+0.24$. Overall, standard deviation of the magnitude residuals without station correction is 0.28, while with station correction, it is 0.23, which indicates that applying station correction reduces the variance by 31% and brings the average residual closer to zero.

    • Multi-criteria approach using GIS for macro-level seismic hazard assessment of Kachchh Rift Basin, Gujarat, western India – First step towards earthquake disaster mitigation


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      The earthquakes have the most dominating societal and economic impact on the built environment. The earthquakes in an intraplate region are infrequent but often damaging. The uncontrolled urban growth in cities due to population explosion and migration makes it necessary to assess seismic hazards in an active region. It provides parameters for seismic safety and helps in disaster mitigation. The Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB) of western India is a seismically active intraplate region where many damaging earthquakes have occurred in the past (Mw 7.8 in 1819, Mw 7.6 in 2001). The KRB hosts many economic corridors and ports. Though the region has been put in a category with highest seismic hazard, the entire region is not prone to high hazards. The primary objective of the study is to integrate major attributes that influence seismic hazard on a GIS platform and prepare a multi-criteria-based hazard map by multi-criteria decision process named as analytical hierarchy process (AHP) developed by Saaty. In this study, the information about some of the attributes like peak ground acceleration (PGA), geology and geomorphology, and tsunami hazard is taken from published literature, whereas shear wave velocity to 30 m depth (Vs)$_{30}$ and amplification factor were obtained through empirical relationships. The integration of these different attributes was performed, and weights were assigned depending on their contribution to the seismic hazard. The multi-criteria approach reveals that the southwestern part comprising of Kachchh mainland has a low hazard as compared to central and northern parts and almost 1 million people and around 0.18 million houses are exposed to moderate to high hazard. Large swaths of land are prone to liquefaction hazard. The corridor comprising of Bhuj, Bhachau and Rapar needs seismic microzonation. This macro level hazard map will be beneficial for the urban planners and government authorities to decide the areas, where seismic microzonation or site-specific studies are required that would help in mitigating earthquake disasters in the future.

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