Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Post-breakup deformations in the Bay of Bengal: Response of crustal strata to the sediment load


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      Passive continental margins are tectonically inactive, but a few of them including the East India Passive Margin (EIPM) show evidences for post-breakup deformations. This unusual process prompted us to investigate the post-rift deformations on EIPM and adjacent deep-water region for understanding the possible mechanisms. Seismic reflection images of the Bay of Bengal reveal a post-rift deformation with a manifestation of extensional faults in Krishna–Godavari (K–G) basin and on flanks of the 85$^{\circ}$E Ridge. In K–G basin, one of the rift-related faults reactivated during the Early Miocene time ($\sim$16 Ma), while on flanks of the 85$^{\circ}$E Ridge new normal faults originated at about 6.8 Ma. From detailed analysis of fault throws, it is observed that the fault in K–G basin recorded a cumulative throw of about 900 m between the basement and Early Miocene horizon ($\sim$16 Ma), later the fault was reactivated at 6.8 Ma and continued the activity progressively until 0.3 Ma before cessation. The fault system on the margin spatially extends for about 300 km between offshore extensions of the Pranahita–Godavari graben and Nagavali–Vamshadhara shear zone. The faults on 85$^{\circ}$E Ridge, initiated at 6.8 Ma and continued until 0.8 Ma, have cumulative throws of about 60 and 110 m on western and eastern flanks of the ridge, respectively. Back-stripping analysis of the fault from the K–G basin discloses two distinct phases of subsidence history: (i) during the first phase (120–23 Ma) the basement subsided at a rate of 46–18 m/Myr due to thermal cooling of the lithosphere, (ii) during the second phase (23 Ma–Present) rapid subsidence rate (69.56 m/Myr) of basement is noticed as a consequence of deposition of copious amounts of Bengal Fan sediments. The thick sedimentary strata exerted vertical load on underlying heterogeneous crust that led to build excessive internal stress and release through weak zones (lying at intersecting planes of heterogeneous crustal blocks). The stress, thus released through fault planes has caused the deformation of crust as well as overlying sedimentary strata.

    • The role of anomalous oceanic features on enhancing flooding duration in Kuttanad region, Kerala (India)


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      The present study describes the active role of met-ocean parameters on the heavy flooding that occurred during July 2018 in the Kuttanad region, Kerala. The model-derived data as well as observations showed a high anomaly of wave height in July 2018 off Kerala was not correlated with local wind anomaly and indicated possible connection of wave anomalies to swell waves. The high period and high amplitude swell waves suggest a wave setup formation near shore for flooding intensification in the Kuttanad region. The wave observation at an open ocean location (AD09) also confirms the presence of high swell waves during the same period. Anomalous elevated non-tidal sea level was evident in the tide gauge data. The narrow opening at Thottappally, is not able to discharge the outflow of the heavy flood water and it is further complicated by the wave setup at the entrance caused by long period swell waves.

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