Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Expounding major ions chemistry of groundwater with significant controlling factors in a suburban district of Uttar Pradesh, India


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      The insight of this study focuses on extracting significant controlling factors contributing to the deviations of groundwater chemistry in suburban district of western Uttar Pradesh. Q-HCA based grouping of the sampling sites categorized major ions chemistry into moderately mineralized clusters (Cluster 1, 2) and highly enriched clusters with exceeding mean levels for the majority of parameters (Cluster 3, 4). Spatial conformity showed that groundwater quality in the southwest, northwest, and northern regions were predominantly influenced. Clusters’ graphical characterization illustrated controlling mechanism of rock–water interaction (Cluster 1, 2 and 3) and shifting towards evaporative mechanisms (Cluster 4). Coinciding results of Piper and Chadha’s plot revealed that Ca–Mg–HCO$_{3}$ and mixed type of hydrochemical facies regulating with recharging water, base-exchange and reverse ion exchange processes (Cluster 1, 2 and 3) and composition of Na+K–Cl–SO$_{4}$ type of water facies (Cluster 4) induced salinization as controlling pathways. Major ionic binary plots indicated the dominance of silicate weathering (Cluster 1 and 2) phenomenon, whereas evaporation processes and chloro-alkaline indices divulged influence of salinization and the cation–anion exchange as the dominant reaction mechanism. Saturation indices attributed the precipitation of aragonite, calcite and dolomite, whereas dissolution of anhydrite and gypsum. Pearson’s correlation highlighted strong association among major ionic complexes and multivariate statistical techniques such as factor component loadings and scores underlined significant controlling factors through F1 loadings causing discharges from man-made point sources (Cluster 3 and 4); F2 and F3 showed mixed sources from peri-urban regions and natural dissolution; F4 scores naturally affected the processes through geogenic phenomenon and F5 affirmed the pollution from point based (fluoride) pollution sources.


      $\bullet$ The prior Q-Hierarchical cluster analysis (Q-HCA) has aggregated the major ions chemistry of the groundwater into moderately and highly mineralized clusters.

      $\bullet$ Cluster-based graphical characterization of the dataset has revealed rock–water interaction as the controlling mechanism and groundwater types and processes highlighted the influence from anthropic and natural sources.

      $\bullet$ Groundwater primarily originated from silicate weathering, revealed excessive salinization through evaporation plots and cation–anion exchange is the major ionic processes. Saturation indices indicated the potential of precipitation of aragonite, calcite and dolomite whereas dissolution of anhydrite and gypsum.

      $\bullet$ Factor analysis (loadings and score) extracted significant components highlighting heavy influence from anthropogenic, mixed sources, natural and points based pollutions.

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