• S V Kasture

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Some aspects of the 30–50 day oscillation

      S V Kasture R N Keshavamurty

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      The structure and interannual variability of the 30–50 day oscillation over the Indian region have been studied during the monsoon season. The power spectra of the zonal component of wind show large power in the 30–50 day time scale. The oscillation has a meridional wavelength of about 25° latitude and a slow northward phase speed of about 0.7° latitude per day. The oscillation also has some interannual variability. The periods are somewhat longer during the drought years.

    • Moist baroclinic instability and the growth of monsoon depressions— linear and nonlinear studies

      V Krishnakumar R N Keshavamurty S V Kasture

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      The objective of this study was two-fold: the first to investigate the role of moist convection and nongeostrophic effects on the growth of the monsoon depressions using a linearized multi-level moist primitive equation (PE) model and quasi-geostrophic (QG) model with only vertical shear. The second was to study the nonlinear evolution, growth, movement and detailed energetics of the monsoon depressions using a nonlinear moist global spectral model.

      Our linear studies using both models revealed lower as well as upper tropospheric growing modes. For the lower tropospheric modes the shorter scales were found to grow faster. While the PE model showed faster growth rate for shorter scales, as compared to longer scales, the QG model showed less tendency for scale selection. The shorter scales in PE model had phase speeds ranging from 4 to — 1 ms−1 and in QG model from 8 to — 4 ms−1. The nongeostrophic effects were found to be, in general, important. One of the lower tropospheric modes with wavelength 2500 km was found to have many features similar to the observed monsoon depression of the Bay of Bengal.

      In the upper troposphere the PE model showed much faster growth rates compared to the QG model. Also the fastest growing mode with a doubling time of 2.5 days had a scale of 6000 km. This was shorter than the scale predicted in the QG model. This mode had many characteristics similar to the observed features of the monsoon upper tropospheric easterly waves.

      Using a nonlinear global spectral model, we simulated the monsoon depression around 21°N starting from an antisymmetric heating distribution (with respect to the equator) and with a specific vertical structure with and without basic flows. The model was integrated for a period of five days incorporating a simple form of cumulus heating. The simulated model disturbance showed a pronounced growth and a westward movement in the presence of cumulus heating. The detailed energetics calculations revealed that the baroclinic energy exchange is the primary energy exchange process and cumulus heating is the driving force for the generation of available potential energy.

    • Sensitivity of the tropical nonlinear stationary Kelvin and Rossby waves to the vertical structure of heating

      R Krishnan S V Kasture

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      Idealized experiments using linear (LM) and nonlinear (NM) multilevel global spectral models have been carried out to investigate and understand the impact of nonlinearities on the stationary wave response in the tropical atmosphere and its sensitivity to the vertical profile of heating. It is found that nonlinearities exert a dominant influence on the low-latitude stationary Kelvin and Rossby waves particularly in the vicinity of the forcing region. Our study shows that nonlinear effects on the upper tropospheric response produce prominent eastward displacement of the anticyclonic vorticity and horizontal shifts of the maximum equilibrium divergence relative to the prescribed heating. These changes due to nonlinear terms are found to be quite sensitive to the vertical structure of diabatic heating. The strongest nonlinear effects are found to occur when the vertical level under consideration is strongly forced from below. Detailed vorticity budget calculations indicate that stronger nonlinear contributions from stretching and horizontal advection of relative vorticity favour the generation of upper tropospheric anticyclonic circulation and its eastward displacement. Larger vertical advection and twisting terms appear to oppose the generation of upper tropospheric anticyclonic vorticity. It is found that the nonlinear terms which affect the vorticity generation in the upper levels are crucially controlled by the vertical profile of heating.

      The mid-tropospheric response due to deep convective heating in the NM is characterized by anomalous equatorial westerlies in the low-latitude Rossby regime and exhibits prominent ageostrophic motions. Such nonlinear effects appear probably because of a vertical shift of the low level circulation anomalies in the NM. In the case of shallow convective heating the occurrence of anomalous zonal flows and ageostrophic motions in the low latitude regions of the NM takes place near the level of the maximum heating. Our study shows that large heating amplitudes and small vertical gradient of heating at a given vertical level together favour generation of anomalous zonal flows and ageostrophic motions in the near equatorial regions. These anomalous basic flows in the low-latitudes have implications on the propagation of transients from the tropics to midlatitudes. Non-linear effects on the lower tropospheric stationary waves are prominently seen in the case of strong low level heating which produces a large strengthening of the lower tropospheric cyclonic anomalies that exhibit distinct eastward shifts in the NM relative to the LM.

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